относящихся к домашнему компьютеру TI-99/4A


R/D COMPUTING NEWSLETTER:  Альманах, разработанный Брюсом Рюаном (Bruce Ryan) newsletter was designed for the hardware gurus of the TI Community and appears to have failed from the lack of an adequate subscriber base. As far as I know, there were 23 issues of the newsletter produced, which started in late 1985 and ran through mid-1987. He may have left a few people holding the bag when he shut Ryte Data operations down, but he did at least do us the courtesy of warning readers before-hand.  At one point in the life of his newsletter, Mr. Ryan made an offer to User Groups that was designed to benefit the UGs, while bolstering the subscriber base for the newsletter. I'm sorry to say, there is every indication that the offer didn't work.

RAINES, VICTOR: Graphic artist who did all the graphics design work for the TI-99/4A Disney software; Peter Pan's Space Odyssey, Pinocchio's Great Escape and von Drake's Molecular Mission. (source: John Phillips, Aug 1999)


RANA SYSTEMS: 21300 Superior St Chatsworth, CA 91311. Manufactured stand alone disk drives for Apple II (Elite Series) computers and for Atari 8-Bit (Rana 1000) computers.

READING ADVENTURES: SF 30117 - Released 3Q/1982 - MSRP $54.95 --

User Comments (provided by John E. Taylor and other members of the Shoals 99er Uer Group in 1985): This module, by Scott, Foresman and Company, is one in a series of programs designed to provide basic reading skills. Reading Adventures deals with main and supporting details, drawing conclusions, and recognizing sequence relationships. Each section is divided into two parts, first a "Study it" section where the particular skill is taught, then a "Try it out" section for practice. Study it first explains what the section is about and has a short story to read. The story is presented in pages, and there are questions to answer before going on to the next page. In Try it Out a longer story is provided, again with questions along the way. An additional "All Skills" category has a story that helps the student with all three skills together. The module comes with a reader that has additional stories to read. According to the manual, Reading Adventures is designed for children in grades 2-4. I believe that the program is best suited for children in the upper range of that age group. Reading Adventures makes very good use of graphics, and rewards the student with animated scenes for correct answers.

READING CHEERS: SF 30115 - Released 3Q/1982 - MSRP $54.95 --

User Comments (provided by John E. Taylor and other members of the Shoals 99er Uer Group in 1985): The module introduces the following word identification skills: recognizing root words with spelling changes before endings and suffixes, recognizing contractions, and recognizing compounds. You can work on just one skill at a time or on all three at once. If for example you are working on root words, you'll be shown a story, complete with graphics, and you'll be asked to underline the root words in the sentence. The module comes complete with a very nice colorful reader.

READING FLIGHT: PHM 3082 / SF 30122 - Released 3Q/1982 - MSRP $39.95 / $54.95 -- According to the documentation, the program improves your child's ability to classify, summarize and outline information.  To do this the program offers

User Comments (provided by John E. Taylor and other members of the Shoals 99er Uer Group in 1985): The reading flight module contains four colorfully depicted stories and three practice drills. Three of the four stories concentrate on one reading skill each, in a format entitled "Study it". This module is not to teach children how to read, it is to improve the reading skills of children who are already reading. This module is best suited for children in grades 4 and 5. The module has good activities, graphics, and speech capabilities.

READING FUN: PHM 3043 / SF 30114 - Released 1Q/1982 - MSRP $39.95 / $54.95 --

User Comments (provided by John E. Taylor and other members of the Shoals 99er Uer Group in 1985): Reading Fun contains four colorfully depicted stories and three practice drills. Speech Synthesizer is optional, but a very nice addition to this module. After the title screen you are given a menu screen to choose your activity from. The activities are PROBLEMS IN STORIES, WHY THINGS HAPPEN and HOW CHARACTERS FEEL. It is suggested that your child start with activity one. After one of the skills is selected, the following options appear: Press 1 for STUDY IT or Press 2 for TRY IT OUT.

    * STUDY IT -- allows your child to study the skill by reading the story and participating in several activities.
    * TRY IT OUT -- lets your child practice the reading skills previously selected, in a set of five short stories with questions and answers.
    * PROBLEMS IN STORIES- After making this selection your child will read a story called ALMOST TOO LATE. In this story, a girl is often late for school. This causes her problems which your child is asked to help her solve. Three new vocabulary words are introduced: Promised, Excited, and Striking.
    * WHY THINGS HAPPEN- another story is given called "WHY BATS FLY AT NIGHT. This story explains why there is darkness and why bats fly at night. your child is then asked why these two situations occurred. Three more words are also introduced: Africa, floated, and continued.
    * HOW CHARACTERS FEEL- gives you the story THE LION AND THE MOUSE. In this story a lion and mouse change how they feel about each other. The reader is then questioned about the changes. Three new words are introduced: frightened, tighter, and gnawing.

The subject matter of this module corresponds to material covered in grades 1 through 3.

READING ON: PHM 3046 / SF 30116 - Released 3Q/1982 - MSRP $39.95 / $54.95 --

READING POWER: SF 30121 - Released 3Q/1982 - MSRP $54.95 --

READING RAINBOWS: SF30113 - Released 3Q/1982 - MSRP $54.95 --
User Comments (provided by John E. Taylor and other members of the Shoals 99er Uer Group in 1985): This module offers seven activities in three comprehension skills generally taught in grades 1 and 2. They are recognizing part-whole, size, and class relationships. Children may study a skill, practice it, or apply what they have studied and practiced as they read an interactive story aboyt Clyde the Dragon's search for a Rainbow. Speech is optional with this module. There are four activities to choose from the main menu.

    * HOW THINGS ARE ALIKE -- you will be shown a group of things on the screen and asked how they are alive. Example (shown) CAP, MITTEN and SHOE. you will be asked if they are CLOTHES, FOOD, or have WHEELS.
    * TRY OUT THE SKILL -- lets you practice the skill you learned above. You are given a word and asked which group it belongs in. Example car. Groups will be ANIMAL, A COLOR, or SOMETHING ON WHEELS. A juggling clown keeps score by adding a ball to the ones he is juggling when a right answer is given.
    * PARTS AND WHOLE -- Gives you pictures of objects on the screen. You are asked if they are the same thing or not. If they are you are asked to pick out the object they belong to. SIZES- here you are shown pictures of the same object but different sizes. You are asked which one is largest or smallest.
    * THE RAINBOW ADVENTURE -- uses the skills learned from the above activities. You will be asked questions about objects on the screen an helk Clyde find the rainbow.

This module also comes with a reader you and your child can read together. This module uses a lot of color and sound to keep the interest of the child.

READING RALLY: PHM 3048 / SF 30120 - Released 3Q/1982 - MSRP $39.95 / $54.95 --

READING ROUNDUP: PHM 3047 / SF 3018 – Released 2Q/1982 – MSRP $39.95 / $54.95 – According to the Scott, Foresman documentation, “Reading Roundup motivates the child to focus on the intricacies and nuances of our language with tall tales, a look at cattle raising in the 1800s, and a story about a very peculiar rock. The module offers activities that will help children understand comprehension skills usually taught in grade four. These skills are: understanding figures of speech, using context to recognize appropriate word meanings and unfamiliar words, and understanding idioms. Children may choose an activity to study a skill, practice it, or apply what they have studied or practiced as they determine the unique location of “The Hideout.” Here are some features your child will enjoy when using Reading Roundup.”

    * Personalization of activities
    * Treasure-hunt simulation
    * Sound educational activities based on interests appropriate to children
    * Choice-making from activity lists Instant feedback to answers
    * Practice activities that are scored visually
    * Numbered responses whose order is randomized to encourage thoughtfulness
    * Durable hardware and software components with useful keyboard functions programmed into the module.

READING TRAIL: SF 30119 -- Released 2Q/1982 -- MSRP $54.95 --

User Comments (provided by John E. Taylor and other members of the Shoals 99er Uer Group in 1985): This module, by Scott, Foresman and company, is one in a series of programs designed to provide basic reading skills. Reading Trail deals with recognizing characters, setting, and point of view. Each section is divided into two parts, first a STUDY IT session where the particular skill is taught, then a TRY IT OUT section for practice. STUDY IT first explains what the section is about, and presents a paragraph to read. A multiple choice question is asked after each paragraph. In TRY IT OUT, a wizard tells eight short stories and the student must answer a question that deals with the particular skill being used. An additional ALL SKILLS category tells a story that the student helps make up along the way. Again, questions are asked about the characters in the story. The module comes with a reader that has aditional stories to read. According to the manual, Reading Trail is designed for children in grades 3-5. Reading Trail makes very good use of graphics and music, and has some excellent animated sequences.


READING SKILLS COURSEWARE SERIES: A series of educational cartridge programs written by Thomas P. Hartsig for Scott, Foresman and Company between 1979 and 1983.

The Reading Skills Courseware Series (according to a listing found on the back of each box) consists of:

    * Grade 1 Early Reading - Word Identification (1A), Reading Rainbows - Comprehension (1B),
    * Grade 2 Reading Fun - Comprehension (2A), Reading Cheers - Word Identification (2B),
    * Grade 3 Reading On - Study and Research (3A), Reading Adventures - Comprehension (4A),
    * Grade 4 Reading Roundup - Comprehension (4A) Reading Trail - Literary Understanding and Appreciation (4B)
    * Grade 5 Reading Rally - Comprehension (5A), Reading Power - Study and Research (5B),
    * Grade 6 Reading Flight - Study and Research (6A), Reading Wonders - Literary Understanding and Appreciation (6B)

Title                             Box        Module    Guide    Reader
Early Reading            30100    30112       30124    30148
Reading Rainbows    30101    30113       30125    30149
Reading Fun              30102    30114
Reading Cheers
Reading On
Reading Adventures
Reading Roundup
Reading Trail
Reading Rally
Reading Power
Reading Flight
Reading Wonders

REGENA: See Whitelaw, Cheryl Regena.

RENKO, HAL: Co-author of the book Terrific Games for the TI-99/4A with Sam Edwards, published in 1983 by Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.

REYNOLDS, ROBIN: General Manager of TI Retailer Unisource Electronics in 1986, located in Lubbock, Texas.

RIDGE SERVICES: 170 Broadway #201 New York, NY 10038 (718) 833-6335 firm that produced the Lotto Picker program for the TI-99/4A in 1985.

RITCHIE, DENNIS: Born September 9, 1941, in Mount Vernon, New York, developed the operating system Unix at Bell Telephone Laboratories with Ken Thompson. With Richard Kernighan, he developed the programming language C. Ritchie and Thompson received the IEEE Computer Society Pioneer Award in 1994 for their work on Unix. (J.A.N. Lee Dept. of Computer Science Virginia Tech. Blacksburg, VA 24061-0106)

RLE: An acronym for Run Length Encoded, a graphics format brought to the TI Community via CompuServe's TI Forum, and the programming expertise of Paul Gray and Travis Watford. (Computer Shopper, Mar87, p.119)

ROBINETT, WARREN: The author of Adventure for the Atari VCS in 1980. Robinett became known as the first programmer for Atari to credit himself for writing the game by secretly coding his name in the program. If a player entered a certain room during game play Robinett's name was displayed on the screen. Because Atari considered all programs their property, programmers were not allowed to claim credit for their creations, a policy which frustrated most of them. Fearing the loss of his job, Robinett decided to covertly give himself credit through this technique. The secret was uncovered by a 12 year old boy in Salt Lake City, Utah, but Atari received favorable publicity from the so-called "Easter Egg", so Robinett was never reprimanded.

ROBO-DROIDS: see Shamus

ROCK RUNNER: Asgard Software #E05 (1990 catalog), #E9107 (1992 catalog) - Released 1990 - MSRP $12.95 -- A game by Eric LaFortune that boasts of great graphics and excellent game play. I would agree with this. I am not a game player as a rule, but Rock Runner is simply a terrific game to play, that also happens to be very visually appealing, not to mention the music and sound effects that it also takes advantage of in making your gaming experience enjoyable. The game is 100% assembly language coded, and will only run out of the Editor/Assembler option #5 mode. Because it accesses a little used or little known graphics mode in the TMS9918A video chip, it cannot be launched from Extended BASIC, and it will not run on the Myarc Geneve 9640. The object of the game is to collect diamonds and points by taking the game's on-screen character all over the scrolling screen with your joystick, while avoiding falling rocks. See a Harry Brashear MICROreview of Rock Runner in the May 1990 issue of MICROpendium on page 41.   

ROCKETMAN: A checkbook balancing program produced in Disk ($39.95) and Tape ($24.95) versions by a California dentist who sold the program under the business name Rocketman (1983-84) and California Programs (1985 and later). The firm was headquartered at 4102 San Pablo Dam Rd in El Sobrante, CA 94803 and could be reached at 415-222-1625.

ROM CARTRIDGES: The concept of ROM cartridge use on a home computer, that is "burning" a program onto a Read Only Memory chip, and then placing the chip(s) in a quick connect/disconnect casing, did not originate with the introduction of the TI-99, nor for that matter did it originate with the introduction of the TI-99's greatest enemy, the Commodore VIC-20. In August 1976 Fairchild Camera and Instruments, a Palo Alto, California semiconductor firm, released its Video Entertainment System, later renamed Channel F to avoid being confused with Atari's Video Computer System, which was the first full-color video game machine to use replaceable cartridges.

Channel F came with hockey and tennis games built in and a port to accept new game cartridges as they were developed. On the heals of Channel F was Atari's Video Computer System (VCS) which also debuted in 1977. In June 1978, the $895 Exidy Sorcerer personal computer was released with 8K of Ram, a 64 column by 30 row screen and the ability to use plug in modules which were the size of 8-track tapes. The Sorcerer appears to be the first "home computer" on the market to use ROM cartridges, though it was never to be a major player in the home computer cartridge software market.

The last computer built for ROM cartridge use was the Atari XE Video Game System, which was a reconfigured Atari 65XE that could be purchased as a game machine, but upgraded to a personal computer if desired. It was introduced at the Winter Consumer Electronics Show in January 1987. The major players in the "computers that use cartridges" market were the Atari 400/800 computers, which were announced in December 1978, the TI-99/4 which was announced in June 1979, and the Commodore VIC-20, which appeared in June 1980. Other computers by these same companies also existed in the computers-that-use-cartridges market. These were computers like the Commodore 64, the Commodore 264/364, the TI-99/2 and the Atari XL line which included the 600, 800, 1200, and 1400XLs, as well as the 1450XLD and finally the Atari 65XE.

Of course there were other "computers" that used cartridge software such as the video game computers like the Atari VCS 2600 (VCS stands for Video Computer System), the Atari 5200, the ColecoVision Game System, Mattel's Intellivision and Intellivision II Systems, the Vectrex Arcade System and others. There were still other home or low-end computers that offered a ROM cartridge slot, but I have found it very difficult to locate much information on the existence of cartridge software written for these machines. Some of the computers I am referring to are the NEC PC-6001, the Spectra Video SV-318, and the Mattel Aquarius, all of which were announced or introduced in January 1983. Also, there are the late entries into the home computers-that-used-cartridges market like IBM's PC Jr., which appeared in November 1983, and the Coleco Adam, which appeared in October 1983. With the exception of the Atari 65XE, the introduction of home computers that used ROM cartridge software all but ceased by January 1985. There may be several reasons why cartridge slots were eliminated on newly introduced computers, but the most obvious one to me is the fact that the newer machines had more memory, which meant that cartridges simply weren't needed.

Cartridges may have been designed by some manufacturers to prevent duplication of software (TI comes to mind), but the biggest advantage they offered was their ability to bank-switch program code. This meant that large programs could (if written correctly) run in small memory machines. This was especially true of the VIC-20, which had only 5K RAM, but a ton of cartridge-based programs written for it. But cartridges cost much more to produce than a disk or cassette version of a program. When Commodore introduced the Amiga 500 and Atari the 520ST, it was the beginning of the end for cartridge using home computers. The final blow seemed to be IBM's loss of the copyright and patent on their PC's BIOS, which opened up the PC clone market in 1986. Once the flood of low-priced, high memory, PC compatible machines hit the market, there was no looking back.

Now before you get too excited and holler that the MSX machines from Japan (that were supposed to take over the low-end computer market in the U.S.) had cartridge slots, a look back at the home computer time line shows that the first generation of MSX computers made their debut in Japan in November 1983. The supposed invasion of MSX computers was to have occurred beginning with the January 1985 Consumer Electronics Show, but it never happened. So, I'm going to stick with my assertion. As an aside, you might find it interesting to know that the MSX concept, though usually credited to the Japanese because they pushed it the most, was actually owned by Microsoft (MSX stands for Microsoft Extended) and it was based on the American made Zilog Z80A microprocessor used with TI's TMS9918A video chip.

Between the years 1979 and 1990 there were over 360 cartridges released or announced for the TI-99/4 and 4A. Of that number, about 275 are verifiable titles thus far. Honors for being the first cartridge produced for the TI-99 must be shared between several programs which were all ready for release when the TI-99/4 was first announced in June 1979 (Diagnostic, Demonstration, Beginning Grammar et cetera). Honors for being the first third-party cartridge for the TI-99 actually goes to four titles produced by Milton Bradley Company and released in December 1979. These were Connect Four, Hangman, Yahtzee and ZeroZap, all sold under the Gamevision banner. News of their impending release actually leaked out in August 1979 when Interface Age magazine reported their upcoming arrival. As far as I can tell, Yahtzee did not actually appear until the first quarter of 1981, despite the announcement, and despite the fact that Milton Bradley Company included it in an 8.5" x 11" color glossy Gamevision flyer. The reason may have been attributable to the fact that Connect Four, Hangman and Zero Zap were all existing programs Milton Bradley had created for their ill-fated Microvision hand-held games playing machine (a prehistoric version of today's Nintendo Game-Boy), while Yahtzee was something new, and thus had to be created from scratch.

So far, honors for being the last cartridge to be produced for the TI-99 goes to Asgard's Extended Basic 3, which was released in the 4th Quarter of 1992. By my calculations, if a person had started their collection in 1979 and purchased every cartridge ever produced for the TI-99 up to the 4th quarter of 1990, at manufacturer's suggested retail price, that person would have spent over $11,000 on their collection.

Almost 50 companies were involved in producing cartridges for the TI-99 at one time or another, some of whom never actually kicked a cartridge out the door (like Walt Disney), despite having finished the code for the cartridge. The most prolific producer of cartridges for the TI-99 was Texas Instruments, next came the Scott, Foresman Company, followed by DataBiotics, Milton Bradley, Atarisoft, Exceltec or Sunware as they were also known, Milliken Publishing, and Funware. A list of cartridges released by company appears below.


    * Addison-Wesley 7
    * Artios 1
    * Asgard 6
    * Atarisoft 16
    * Broderbund 2
    * CBS Toys 1
    * CSI Design Group 1
    * Control Data Corp. 1
    * CorComp 4
    * Data East 3
    * DaTaBioTics 28
    * DataSoft 1
    * DLM 9
    * Exceltec/Sunware 15
    * Fox Video 1
    * Funware 13
    * Futuresoft 3
    * Imagic 7
    * IUG 1
    * John Phillips 10
    * Kantronics 1
    * Looking Glass 3
    * Mechatronics GmbH 2
    * Micropal 2
    * Milliken Publishing 14
    * Milton Bradley 22
    * Myarc 1
    * Navarone 20
    * Norton Software 1
    * Not-Polyoptics 1
    * Parker Brothers 5
    * Personal Peripherals 1
    * Pilgrim's Pride 1
    * Romox 7
    * SNK Electronics 1
    * Scholastic Inc. 4
    * Scott Adams 2
    * Sega 3
    * Sierra On-Line 3
    * Sofmachine 5
    * Software Specialties 3
    * Spinnaker Software 2
    * Synapse 2
    * Tex Micro 1
    * Thorn-EMI 3
    * Tigervision 10
    * Triton 4
    * Ultracomp 1
    * Walt Disney 4

Not all of the companies listed actually produced the programs or the cartridges they are given credit for in the above list. For example, the Walt Disney programs that were to be produced for the TI-99/4A were actually written by programmers at DLM in Allen, Texas, not programmers at Walt Disney Studios.

In another example, the Face Maker and Story Machine programs that belonged to Spinnaker Software were not written for the 99/4A by programmers at Spinnaker. They were simply licensed to Texas Instruments by Spinnaker Software and then TI either used in-house or contract programmers to do the porting of the code to the TMS9900 chip. For example, Jerry Spacek, owner of Intersoft (the firm that produced Defend the Cities), and John Phillips ported the Face Maker code to the TI-99. In the case of Story Machine, it was Bill Mann who did the programming that brought it over to the 99/4A computer.

ROMANO, DR. GUY-STEFFEN: Dr. Romano died on August 15, 1989. He was a linguistic genius, the author of several pieces of advanced software in the early 80's and the original librarian for the IUG. He founded the Amnion Helpline in the latter part of the 80's to provide assistance to any 99er in need. A scholar, a gentleman and a TI-99er in the very highest sense. Dr. Romano was 57 years old.

ROMANO, JILL: Owner of Symbiotech, the vendors of Doom of Mondular and other TI-99 programs.

ROMEO: Extended Software - Released 1982 - MSRP $15.00 -- Romeo must traverse a desert, a stream infested with alligators and sharks, and must find his way through a cavern to obtain a fitting reward. Available in disk and tape format. Joysticks are required.

ROMOX ECPCs and SOFTWARE CENTERS: Romox was a Campbell, CA firm, with manufacturing facilities in the Phillipines, that specialized in manufacturing cartridges for home computers like the TI-99/4A and others in the same or lower price range. The company was founded in 1982 by a management team of pioneers in the computer and semiconductor industries. In 1983 Romox, with noted industry pioneer Paul Terrell as company president, announced a new idea in marketing computer game programs that would allow the user to buy their new reusable Edge Connector Programmable Cartridge (ECPC) only once, and have it reprogrammed each time a new game program was desired. Initial purchase price for the ECPC was around $25 and a new game could be "burned in" for less than $10.

The Romox Plan for the ECPC was to put Romox "Software Centers" in retail outlets like 7-11 stores, at a $160 per month lease charge to the retailer, which would allow easy access to new programs by computer users. The user had only to bring their ECPC to any outlet with a Romox Software Center, place the ECPC in the correct cartridge slot, choose the game they wanted, pay the new game fee and the clerk would activate the Software Center.

The Software Center was an off-white colored plastic cabinet and monitor which looked alot like a computer. It was approximately 18" wide by 6" high with a color monitor approximately 12" wide by 8" high. There were ten slots on the front panel of the cabinet for different types of computer cartridge connectors and a membrane covered keypad for typing in the catalog number of the program to burn in to the ECPC's reprogrammable chip.

The user pressed any key to start the Software Center, selected a program from the screen or the Romox Catalog, paid for the new program and the clerk would activate the Software Center. The machine would notify the user when the new game was ready to go. That was all there was to it.

Only 5 of the 10 slots in the Software Center front panel were used, probably because Romox already had the major players in the cartridge software business covered, but they built the machine for the possibility of new computers in the future. I know the Spectravideo SV-318 and the Coleco Adam both came with a cartridge port and there might have been a couple of others, but the "big guns" were already on the panel.

Going from left to right while facing the Software Center, the slots were dedicated to:

    * Slot #1: TI-99/4A Home Computer
    * Slot #2: Commodore VIC 20
    * Slot #3: Commodore 64
    * Slot #4: Atari 2600 VCS
    * Slot #5: Atari 400/800, Atari 600/800XL, and the Atari 1200XL

The TI-99 games housed in the Software Centers were Ambulance, Anteater, Cave Creatures, Data Base Sort Utility, Driving Demon, Henhouse, Hen Pecked, Princess and the Frog, Rabbit Trail, Rotor Raiders, Schnoz-ola, St. Nick, Topper, Typo II and Video Vegas. Other machines has more titles available. Atari 2600-49 titles, Atari (all others)-39 titles, VIC 20-51 titles, Commodore 64-26 titles and the TI-99/4A-16 titles.

I have never seen an actual Romox Software Center anywhere, but Kyle Crighton of Milbrae, CA, who is a software engineer in the San Jose area, has verified their existence, at least in convenience stores in the northern California area. Byte Magazine, in their February 1985 issue on page 10, reported that Romox ceased operations mainly because of poor dealer response and the general collapse of the cartridge video-game market, so it appears that the Software Center concept lived a short life.

ECPC CARTRIDGE PROGRAMMER: Romox also offered a complete ECPC Cartridge Programmer tool kit that was not related to the Software Center marketing concept. The tool kit consisted of:

WD-03 Cartridge Programmer $300.00 WD-04 Cartridge (EPROM) Eraser 39.95 Blank ECPC cartridges were also offered: TI-01 Blank 8K ECPC Cartridges 19.95 An illustration/photo of this system may be seen in the July 1983 issue of Enthusiast 99 magazine on page 40.

During the second quarter of 1984 Navarone Industries took over the Cartridge Programmer business from Romox and added an IBM PCjr. cartridge making tool kit to their product line. At the same time, Navarone announced a licensing agreement with Romox that allowed Navarone to produce and distribute Romox's entire line of cartridge software for both the 99/4A and the Commodore 64. Byte Magazine, in their February 1985 issue on page 10 reported that Romox ceased operations mainly because of poor dealer response and the general collapse of the cartridge video-game market. Perhaps the licensing agreement with Navarone was the beginning of the end for Romox? (Charles LaFara writing in Enthusiast 99, Nov83, p.40 -- Romox Software Catalog -- Jerry Price, former owner of Tex*Comp User's Supply in Granda Hills, CA) ROPER, PAT: See Games By Apollo. RYTE DATA: 99/4A support company formed by Bruce Ryan, running out of 210 Mountain Street Haliburton Ontario Canada K0M 1S0 (705) 457-2774. Company produced the R/D Computing Newsletter and distributed several products, especially those produced by the German firm Mechatronics GmbH.

From Video Games Player, Oct/Nov 83, page 17: CARTS CAN BE REPROGRAMMED!

      Even the best games get boring, so Romox is marketing a cartridge that can be reprogrammed with the new game of your choice. This is
      possible only with their patent-pending "ECPC" (Edge Connector Programmable Cartridge). Regular games use ROM cartridges that can't
      be reprogrammed. All you'll have to do will be to visit the local shop, trade your old Romox cartridge for a blank one and pop the cart into
      one of nine slots on the Romox terminal. In less than a minute, you've got a new game, for only $10. In addition to lower prices, Romox will
      be electronically transmitting new games to the 1300 "Programming Terminals" around the country, so you won't have to wait months for
      new games. Games for Atari VCS and all Atari computers, Commodore's 64 and VIC-20, and the TI 99/4A will be available in September.
      Plans are being made to provide cartridges for Mattel, Oddysey [sic] and other formats upon agreements with game publishers. Romox
      anticipates each terminal to eventually offer 500 games. (compliments of Bruce Tomlin)

RYTE DATA SOUTH: Short-lived American arm of Bruce Ryan’s Ryte Data company. Staffed by Henri Schlereth and Judi Beckett. Formed in May 1987 and closed in October 1987.

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