относящихся к домашнему компьютеру TI-99/4A


LA 99ERS: The Los Angeles 99ers formed January 27, 1982 as the Los Angeles-South Bay 99/4 Users Group. Bob Saunders was the first group president and Bob Delpit, author of the DelPlan spreadsheet, was the group's first newsletter editor. Dick Martin and Jerry Price (of TexComp fame) were club librarians. Sam Tepper (any releation to Mini-Mag 99 editor Leslyn Tepper, I wonder) and Fred McCarty, author of the TexTiger word processor, were program chairmen.


LAMPLIGHTER SCHOOL LOGO PROJECT: Perhaps the most ambitious LOGO project undertaken with the TI-99 Home Computer (August 1982), it was carried out jointly by the MIT Logo Group, Texas Instruments and the Lamplighter School, a priviate school in Dallas, Texas. Lamplighter School had 400 students between the ages of 3 and 9 at the time. The school was given 50 Texas Instruments LOGO systems that were distributed throughout all grades. The goal of the project was to establish a setting in which student access to computers would not be a limiting factor in order to see what students could learn in such circumstances. (Logo In The Schools, Daniel Watt, Byte Magazine, August 1982, page 130).

LANDO, J: The name that appears on the title screen of the never released game cartridge Cannonball Blitz,  that has been widely circulated around the TI-99 Community in disk format. According to cartridge collector Bryan Roppolo, the name J. Lando is actually a pseudonym for programmer James G. Landowski, who also created TI-99/4A versions of Centipede and Dig-Dug for Atarisoft, as well as the unreleased Cannonball Blitz game for Sierra On-Line.

LAREDO: A staff artist at 99er Home Computer Magazine who put his mark on many of the drawings done for the magazine.



LAST WHOLE TI99/4A BOOK: last whole ti99/4a Book - 1984 - Wiley Press - ISBN 0-471-87920-7 - MSRP $12.95 -- A 460 page book by Paul Garrison that is subtitled "Programs and Possibilities".  Divided into 16 chapters including:

02-Disks and Disk Drives
03-Getting Started
04-Commercial Software
05-Word Processing
06-TI BASIC and Extended BASIC
07-A Primer to Personal Program Writing
08-Your Computer Talks Back
09-Programs For The Home
10-Educational Programs
11-Sprites and Other Graphics
12-Programs Strictly For Fun
13-Programs for Business or Profession
14-Advanced TI BASIC Statements
15-Having Fun With TI LOGO II
16-Telecommunications: Modems and Data Banks

LAWS OF ARITHMETIC: PHM 3099 - Released 1Q/1983 - MSRP $39.95 -- An educational cartridge programmed by John C. Plaster which presents some of the principles of mathematics such as the commutative, associative and distributive properties of addition and multiplication. It is one of twelve such cartridges that were produced for Texas Instruments by Milliken Publishing. Designed for children in grades 4-8. It was released during the 4th quarter of 1982 at a suggested retail price of $39.95. The only instruction manual I've ever seen for this Milliken Math Sequences cartridge is of the newer, more colorful cover. It carries part number 1053590-599.

LEARNING CENTERS: APRIL 1982 -- TI has begun converting some of the retail stores into "Learning Centers". In January 1982 the Chicago store no longer offered TI products for sale and now serves as a center for demonstrating the 99/4A Home Computer, along with the DS 990 commercial system, calculators, learning aids and desktop business systems. In an article in Dallasite, February 1982, it is said the Learning Center's purpose is to give information and training on products through the use of seminars, lectures, workshops, videotape courses, books, manuals, literature, software and accessories. Services will be mostly free or at a nominal charge. As of this writing, TI stores have been converted in San Francisco, Santa Clara, and Palo Alto, all located in California. In order to purchase TI products, a customer will be referred to a toll free number where he can make a telephone purchase or be referred to the closest dealer. The TI Learning Center will be available to answer questions about problems the user is having. (ICA Update, Aug 1982, p.5)

JUNE 1982 -- TI CLOSES ITS RETAIL STORES, OPENS LEARNING CENTERS: Texas Instruments will phase out its small network of TI-owned retail stores in favor of a unique program intended to support both dealers and users of TI products. A spokesman for TI said that while TI's small network of 12 retail stores was established to mark TI's presence in key markets and to give the firm's salespeople firsthand experience, TI now feels it can achieve these goals through independent dealers, thanks to the evolution of the marketplace. The spokesman said TI will replace stores with "Texas Instruments Learning Centers" over the new few years.

Tl, which like Atari and Commodore sells most of its hone computers through traditional mass'market channels such as department stores, opened its first TI Learning Center in Chicago this past January. By the time you read this, two more centers will have opened, in San Francisco and in Santa Clara, California. In all three cases, the LearningCenters are replacing TI-owned retail stores.

Although the new Learning Centers will not sell any TI products, they are expected to generate more sales at the stores that carry TI products and to function as resource centers for those retailers.

While TI is studying "a number of different options," Oliva could not predict how many, if any, more Learning Centers would be opening this year. 'The Learning Centers are a partnership program, We want to help our retailers and, at the same time, provide affordable education for consumers," said Oliva.

TI has hired "a cadre of field' resource consultants" to work part- time at the centers. "Many of the consultants are educators that we will train, but we'll also have a number of people with computer backgrounds" said Oliva.

One service the centers will offer will be ongoing two-to-three hour seminars on the subject "Do I Want A Home Computer?" Oliva said the seminar provides a comprehensive overview of what a home computer can do- including information on applications and computer literacy. "We don't go into a competitive analysis. The courses are designed to tell people what a home computer does," said Oliva.

People will he able to attend the introductory seminar at a cost of between $15 and $20, which they can deduct from the price of a new TI home computer-should they decide afterward to go to a retail store to buy one."

The retailers we've talked to in Chicago have been enthusiastic. We think it will work, but we're still in a learning phase," noted Oliva.TI introduced its first home computer, the 99/4, two years ago with big expectations, but its relatively high price, limited software and calculator-style keyboard combined to produce sluggish sales, well below the company's forecast.

Last year TI came out with another version of the machine, called the 99/ 4A which is priced lower and features a traditional typewriter-style keyboard and a lot more software. The TI version of Logo is reported to be selling very well, and in some cases is credited with making hardware sales happen!

Sales figures for the past six months reveal that the new version is selling far better than the initial release, surpassing even Ti's own sales projections.


According to Oliva, TI has identified "seven major thrusts" it plans to focus on in the next few years with the aid of the Learning Centers.

1. The centers will offer a series of courses for both the beginner and the advanced computer user.

2. Ongoing programs and events at various retail stores will be sponsored by the Learning Centers; these will be intended to promote home computers and answer questions about home computers in general and TI products specifically.

3. The centers will offer activities dedicated to schools and educators, and will make TI equipment available to schools.

4. They will support dealers of the more advanced TI small-business computers and products.

5. Courses on vertical-market application packages, such as one for realtors, will be given at the centers.

6. Summer activity programs will be set up. Events will take place at Learning Centers, YMCAs and other locations suitable for children and parents to attend.

7. A corporate and industrial thrust that is intended to get professional managers and personnel into the Learning Centers will be initiated; programs detailing what TI has to offer will be set up.According to Oliva, TI has had the equivalent of the Learning Centers running Internally for several years. 'We've got plenty of videotapes that were used at TI to educate our people and will be selecting several of those tapes for use in the stores," said Oliva.

While the Learning Centers will only be in a few cities this year, TI has started another program that Oliva referred to as a Product Sales Representation program, which is designed to augment TI's home-computer division operation.

"We've engaged a network of educators who will be available to answer questions on home computers specifically," noted Otiva The educators will travel to various TI retail locations, starting this summer. (From June 24, 1982 InfoWorld article, by David Needle IW Staff)


LEGENDS: legends Asgard - #FE03 - Released: April 1987 - MSRP $27.95 -- A graphical adventure written in Extended BASIC, by Donn Granros. The FE03 catalog number and $27.95 msrp come from Asgard's Fall 1987 catatlog. In the Fall 1988 catalog the product is listed without a catalog number, and at a 20% reduction in price of $22.95. In the Fall-Winter 1989 Asgard Catalog Legends is given catalog number FE-09, and it maintains the $22.95 msrp. In the 1990-91 Asgard Catalog it is given catalog number E13, but the msrp remains $22.95. Click here to read a product review of Asgard Legends by respected TI-99er Richard Fleetwood of the FLUG (Forest Lawn User Group) 99ers in Dallas, TX.

LEISURE LIBRARY: The predecessor to the Solid State Software Command Modules used in the TI-99/4 and 4A Home Computers. The Solid State Software Leisure Library appeared in April 1978 made specifically for the TI Programmable 58 and 59 calculators. The plug in read only memory unit contains 20 different keystroke programs for golf handicaps, bowling scores, chess ratings, results of deals in duplicate or triplicate bridge, blackjack, acey duecy, craps, NIM, biorhythms, a spacecraft landing and a sea battle game and other applications. Two programs use the alphabetic and plotting capabilities of the PC-100A printing cradle. The module is $35 from Texas Instruments.

LENGYEL, JOSEPH W.: 1017 Valley Drive Pittsburgh, PA 15237. Author of Easy Tax '84, an Extended Basic Federal Income Tax filing program that sold for $14.95. See MICROpendium March 1985, page 38 for advertisement.

LETTER WRITER: Bizware Inc. - Disk version only - Released 1983 - MSRP $39.95 -- Inputs and edits to the screen. Selects a heading, address body, and closing for letters. Stores and outputs to the printer.

LEVY, JAMES: Co-founder of Activision in 1979, along with four former Atari programmers: David Crane, Alan Miller, Bob Whitehead, and Larry Kaplan.


LGMA: An acronym for Little Green Men Associates, which is the one-person company that produced 99 Fortran for the TI-99/4A in 1988.

LIMA, OH 99ERS: One of the premier historical user groups in the TI-99 Community thanks to the efforts of member Dr. Charles Good. Sponsors an annual meeting or TI Fair each May. Club newsletter is Bits, Bytes & Pixels. Address as of October 1992 is Box 647 Venedocia, OH 45894.

LITTLE, ARTHUR, D.: In December 1981, a computer analyst for the Arthur D. Little Company named Bill Meserve observed that "The 99/4 is neither fish nor fowl." The comment refers to the 99/4's position as a computer which is not powerful enough for the high-end business user, but that is also too expensive for the low-end home market.

LITTLE PROFESSOR: One of Texas Instruments' early handheld educational calculators that was affectionately known as The Young Math Student's Best Friend. It offered math drills in a fun environment for preschool through grade 4 students. It was a lively, kid-sized learning aid designed to help youngsters practice addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Little Professor contained 50,000 preprogrammed problems that were presented like flash cards. An animated LCD display rewarded correct answers witha wiggle of the Professor's mustache. It weighed approximately 2 pounds and retailed for $14.95 in 1984. The package included an activity book and it required 2 AA batteries to operate.

LIVING TOMB: Comprodine - Released 4Q/1989 - MSRP $15.00 -- A 100% assembly language coded game written by Quinton Tormanen. Has a built-in demo to step you through the halls of the tomb and introduce you to the many creatures and traps you will encounter. Pop up windows let you select and control your steps. Features excellent 3D graphics, and the program keeps score including an all time top ten list.

LOANS: A computer program that was one of three on a demonstration cassette that was supposed to be packaged with the TI-99/2 Basic Computer. The other two programs on the tape were entitled "Addition Tutor" and "Cannon Blast".

LOGIX: A PO Box 4107, 991 Broadway Albany, NY 12204 (518) 463-3251 distributor of TI-99/4A products. See their ad in the Nov82 issue of 99er Magazine on page 13.

LOGO and EDUCATIONAL COMPUTING JOURNAL: A newsletter initiated by Krell Software Inc., 1320 Stony Brook Dr., Stony Brook, NY 11790. Subscriptions were $30.00 per year.


    * LOGO and Educational Computing, Krell Software Inc. 1320 Stony Brook Dr. Stony Brook, NY 11790.
    * The National LOGO Exchange, POB 5341 Charlottesville, VA 22905 Attn: Bill Mattson.
    * Turtle News, Young People's LOGO Association 1208 Hillsdale Dr. Richardson, TX 75081 Attn: Jim Muller.

LOHMEYER, JIM: A Super-Nova assembly language programmer from Illinois who shone brightly in the TI-99 Community from his first appearance at TI-XPO in Las Vegas, NV in 1988, until he burned out a couple of years later after a mildly productive stint as a partner with Tom Freeman in T & J Software.

LOST HITS: A disk from Tenex Computer Express released in 1986 that contained the games Computer War, Submarine Commander and River Rescue , all of which were Thorn EMI games in 1983 that supposedly were scheduled for release as 99/4A cartridges, until TI's decision to leave the home computer market. The disk carried Tenex product #40856 and retailed for $29.95.

LTFS: Alien craft that are one of eight hazards in the Parsec game.

LUNAR * TICS: see ATMenterprises.

LUND, CHARLES: Designer of the Addison-Wesley cartridge Computer Math Games VI, released for the 99/4A Home Computer in 1982.

Возврат к содержанию Энциклопедии терминов
Возврат к содержанию Энциклопедии терминов TI-99/4A

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