ЭНЦИКЛОПЕДИЯ ТЕРМИНОВ,
относящихся к домашнему компьютеру TI-99/4A

G

G: - Графический язык программирования, разработанный Джином Кравчуком (Gene Krawczyk) из клуба "Adelaide TI Computer Club" в Южной Австралии в 1988-89 гг.

GALACTIC EMPORERS: A multi-player strategic simulation which can support up to 4 players, in which all opponeents attempt to gain control of the all the planets in the galaxy. Authored by Eric Kepes, and marketed through MS Express in 1990. MSRP $19.95. Requires Disk, 32K, and XB.

GALAXY: According to the literature inside the 11.5" x 8" box, this 1983 Microcomputer Games 4517 Hartford Rd. Baltimore, MD 21214 (301-254-9200) (a Division of Avalon-Hill Games) cassette is "A Game of Galactic Exploration and Conflict". The package (at a minimum) consists of a complete set of instructions, a Galaxy Log Pad and software on cassette. The cassette is recorded on both sides, with Side #1 (the labeled side) having Galaxy on it for the Commodore 64 and the Texas Instruments 99/4A Home Computer. Side #2 (the unlabeled side) has Galaxy on it for Atari Home Computers and TRS-80 Models I, III and IV. Although I've never played the game, it was favorably reviewed by John Koloen of MICROpendium in the August 1984 issue of that magazine, on page 18.

"Galaxy is Avalon Hill’s second translation for the TI home computer. The first was the TI BASIC version of B1-Bomber. Galaxy is programmed to operate in Extended BASIC. Performance: This multi-player space-strategy game operates much like Galactic Battle, which is reviewed elsewhere in this issue. The principal difference, aside from the fact that it comes on cassette and uses only console memory, is that it is easier to use and uses only one screen.

"Game set-up includes provisions for loading a saved game, inputting the number of players, from one to four, the number of planets, from 5 to 26, four-letter designations for each player (each player has his own color, too) and the duration of the game, from 50 to 100 “months.” Players may also decide whether to allow the computer to attack the participants and the frequency of the attacks. At the start of the game, each player has one planet while the others are owned by the computer, whether he is allowed to attack or not. The screen depicting the galaxy may be redrawn at the beginning until all players are satisfied. -- "The screen display is well- designed, using the upper two-thirds to depict the galaxy and the lower third to display input prompts and display the results of battles. Each planet is denoted by a letter from A to Z and a colored circle corresponding to its owner’s color. Players have a choice of several commands, which may be displayed on the screen at any time by pressing the ‘H” key. The commands include (L)aunch ships, (I)nspect planet, (C) alculate transit time and (N)o further orders. Other commands permit the user to reset the time limit, save the game, etc. Each player starts out with a home planet and at least 100 ships. Ships are launched by pressing the “L” key and responding to the prompts for the source planet, the destination planet and the number of ships to send. The Inspect command allows the user to review the status of selected planets that belong to him. This command reports the number of ships on the specified planet and the ship production capability (from 0 to 10) of the planet. The production capability refers to the number of ships the planet creates per turn. The more ships it creates, the more useful the planet is to a player since he can use the extra ships to create larger fleets with which to attack other planets. "The transit time command lets the player know how many turns it will take for a fleet to fly from one planet to another. Sound is used to simulate battle sounds between turns when attacks are made. Beeps are used to indicate that a key has been pressed during input. The enter key is used only after all input for a particular move has been made. Each player may launch as many fleets as he likes during any turn. The N’ key is pressed to signify the end of a player’s turn. Ihave no major reservations about this game. It is wellimplemented, considering that it is designed to run out of the memory available in the TI console. The screen display is easy to read and the color coding of planet ownership is a nice touch. I also like the fact that the user decides whether to let the computer play or not.

Ease of Use: This is an easy game to play, from the standpoint of input. The ability to call up a list of available commands at any time is very helpful. A minimum of keystrokes is necessary to input the commands for any move. People of all ages who played this game picked up on it right away.

Documentation: The documentation gives the basics for several versions of the game (Commodore, Radio Shack, IBM, Atari and TI). Although the company makes an attempt to allay criticism of the documentation by noting that it has been verified by Software Testers of Universal Microcomputer Programmers (STUMP), I think it is inadequate. For example, the documentation does not include any specific reference to the pregame selection of options. It is my Opinion that documentation should reflect the software, and it is principally on this basis that I evaluate documentation. Sorry, STUMP.

Value: I enjoyed playing this game with the family. Everyone, regardless of sex or age, was able to participate. And it wasn’t long before mom and one of the boys started to develop alliances to attack you know who." -JK

Avalon-Hill, or Microcomputer Games, I'm not sure which, is a company after my own heart. They believe is using product numbers to identify the various components of their product. So do I. Following is a list of the components in the Galaxy box that I own.

4190101 - Four-page instruction manual, in approximately 8.5inch by 11inch paper size.
4190103 - Galaxy Log Pad for use in game play. 7inch by 5inch, used in landscape mode, printed grids on both sides of each page, approximately 30 pages in the pad.
4190161 - 11.5inch by 8inch two-part (top and bottom like Parker Brothers used) cardboard box.
4190202 - Cassette tape containing the Galaxy software for Commodore 64, 16K TI-99/4A, 16K Atari 8-Bit, and 16K TRS-80 Model 1, 3 and 4 computers.
W-5524 3/83 100M - Two post cards attached via a perforation line, one being a feedback survey for existing owners on how they liked the game, what computer they use etc., and the second post card being a "Do A Friend A Favor" post card where you give Microcomputer Games the contact info on a friend, and Microcomputer Games sends them a free color brochure.
X4092 8/83 200M 0 - A 20-page color catalog with screen shots, explanations and packaging illustrations for what appears to be every computer game or computer simulation produced by Microcomputer Games.
X4271 9/83 200M - The Avalon Hill Games and Parts Price List effective September 15, 1983.

Credit for the design and programming of the Galaxy game is listed as follows:

Game Design - Tom Cleaver
Atari Version - Steve Hinkle and Dave Johnston
Commodore 64 Version - Walter Brewer
TI-99/4A Version - James Burck
TRS-80 Version - Rick McTeague, Grover Davidson and March C. Mason.
IBM Version: Randall Rice (no IBM Version is included in the package I own)
Artwork - Charles Kibler
Prep Department Coordinator - Elaine M. Adkins
Playtesters - Mitch Udelman, Larry McCauley, and Tommy Shaw.

GAMBLERS HELPER: A TI BASIC program released 4Q/1983. The following comes from an ad in Compute!. " Practice "Texas Holdem". A poker game that the rage of the gambling casinos and card rooms. Written in standard basic by a gambler for a gambler. You can bet, check, fold and analyze what hand is needed to win the pot. Why play against the house? "Holdem" is playedat tables provided by the casinos. Practice at home then have the edge when you go to a casino or card room. Also available "Keno". Practice the game with the big money payoff. Other casino games available soon. Send $21.95 check or money order plus $2 shipping for each cassette and instructions. Washington residents add $1.60 sales tax." See also House of Software. (Compute! Nov83, p.332)

GAME VISION MODULES: See MILTON BRADLEY GAME VISION MODULES.

GARRISON, PAUL: Santa Fe, New Mexico resident who wrote the book entitled The Last Whole TI-99/4A Book-Programs and Possibilities, published by John Wiley and Sons in 1984.

GEMBAR GRAPHICS: 455 Amherst Circle East Satellite Beach, FL 32937 firm which produced the RX-80 Tickler and Gemini 10X/15X Tickler utilities for helping printer users set font styles, print pitches, line feeds etc. for those printers when used on a TI-99/4A.

GENEALOGY WORKSHOP: Micropal - MSP 20801 - Released 1983 - MSRP $44.95 - Les and Cindy Catlin put this application together using the Easy Data database application as the core. Requires Extended BASIC, 32K RAM, disk and printer. Automates many of the tasks involved in keeping geneological records. Although it claims to be easy enough for the beginner, I have used it, and don't agree. It will take an investment of time to get the hang of it, and you WILL need to read the well-presented instruction manual. The Family Data section stores a variety of information on individual members of the family tree, and it allows searches to find common birth and death locations. The Overview section stores names and dates for each family, including up to 20 children. The Sources section stores the details of where your information came from. The program prints sequentially numbered cross reference forms, family group sheets and source sheets. Requires Extended BASIC, 32K memory expansion, disk and printer.

GENEVE 9640 COMPUTER: (MICROpendium, June 1986) -- Myarc’s new computer, the “Geneve,” made its debut at the June 1986 Consumer Electronics Show in Chicago. The long-promised new computer from Myarc features TI-Writer in 80 columns and will support any program in TI assembly language written to specifications for TI, according to John Keown of Myarc. “A few software authors played some tricks and their programs won’t work on it,” he notes. Keown said the company would modify Myarc 128K and 512K cards to be compatible, for any registered owners. The computer features an IBM PC XT-style keyboard as standard with 640K RAM patches for TI-Writer and Microsoft Multiplan, 80-column display, BASIC 3.0 and a MS-DOS operating system, he noted. It uses a TI 9995 processor chip operating at 12 MHz. It will have a program to copy existing cartridges, he notes. Keown says the hex cable to the peripheral expansion box has been replaced, with the keyboard now connecting directly to the P.E. box. The computer runs “between three and six times faster than the 99/4A, depending on the mode,” he says, “The graphics mode is superior to Atari.” It has mouse support and ROB support, Keown says. He says Myarc will be “introducing very shortly an RGB composite 80-column monitor for under $250.” Suggested list price for the computer is $495. The company was planning to ship out beta-test boards in early June to “prime software developers” so they can upgrade their software, Keown says. Orders are being takep now for a shipment date of July 30. Keown says he has been hired recent­ly to “handle the business end” for Myarc and says he is enforcing strict quality control and deadline policies. The computer also has separate function keys, 128K of VDP RAM, supports 40 and 80 column display modes and includes speech. According to Myarc, it is compatible with Myarc, TI and CorComp disk controller and RS232 cards.

(MICROpendium April 1987) --  The Geneve is here, and you’ll find the first in a series of preview/reviews in this edition. I have never witnessed the birth of a new computer before and I find this experience to be thrilling. It brings me back to that first weekend when me and the kids cleared the kitchen table to make room for our first 99/4A. Everything about that experience was intriguing, and my introduction to the 9640 is remarkably similar. I expect this feeling to continue for a long time as new products and software are released to support the machine. My sources tell me that Myarc is gearing up to produce some 100 of the 9640 boards per day and that the end of April will signal the beginning of its consumer sales campaign. Those who have been waiting, I’m told, won’t have to wait much longer. - John Koloen.

(MICROpendium June 1987) -- DOS IS FINALLY OUT - Myarc’s DOS is finally here. I got mine a couple of days ago, too late to get it into a review for this edition. (Ironically, we do have a review of a disk operating system, 4A-DOS, but it runs on the 4A while M-DOS, of course, is for the Geneve.) A couple of quick points about M-DOS: it provides support for disk drives (I can now use Multiplan) and its operations appear to match the description of it in the hefty Geneve manuaL I’ve had the final version of one part of M-DOS, the GPL loader, for several weeks. This program loads into memory and allows you to select one of five processing speeds (the slowest is the 4A mode and the fastest is the straight GPL mode for use with pro­grams that are written in GPL (such as Multiplan). The top speed is about 3.25 times faster than the slowest speed. In between, speeds are 2x, 2.25x and 3x faster than the slowest speed. The GPL loader also is used to load cartridges saved to disk. Using the loader, I have not found any cartridges that failed to load. - John Koloen

GENEVE 9640 COMPUTER - SOFTWARE:

Bryght Data
Professional Business Accounting Software
Clint Pulley
Big C Compiler
DataBioTics
Lush Brush
Macro Assembler
PILOT
Super-Super Forth
Super Word
The Music Shop
The Professional Business Assistant
The Terminal Connection
Inscebot
TI-Artist
Myarc
My-Word
Paul Charlton
Fast-Term II
Pecan Systems
UCSD Pascal Runtime
UCSD Programming Languages
UCSD BASIC
UCSD COBOL
UCSD Fortran
UCSD Pascal
Pike Creek Computer Company
General Purpose Accounting Software

GENIAL TRAVELER: A TI-99/4A owner's "Diskazine" created by Barry A. Traver in 1985. It consisted of six (6) flippy disks per volume, with each disk containing articles and programs from some of the best writers and programmers in the TI Community. In addition to the six (6) disks subscribers received, Traver often mailed out "Bonus Disks" and included disks compiled by his son John Calvin Traver.

GERALDINE: A highly modifed 99/4A console created by Ken Hami of the Brea, CA User Group that was shown at the 1988 Boston Computer Fayuh.

GERM PATROL: One of the never released command modules for the TI for which code actually exists. Germ Patrol carries a 1983 copyright date by Texas Instruments. The program teaches about how to stay healthy and avoid pathogenic bacteria and viruses. There is almost no color, and there is no speech or music. The program is slow and boring.

GIRDER MAN: Hacker Shack - Released 1984 - MSRP $12.00 -- An arcade game advertised in the May 1984 issue of Computer Shopper on page 133.

GIZMO: OPA - Released 1990 - MSRP $ -- Designed to expand the 99/4A GROM port for modules to 8 slots.

GK UTILITY I: A set of 'tools' for the MG GRAM Kracker owner who bought the 80K memory option with their GRAM Kracker. It was released in 1986, and was written mostly by Florence Alabama resident Danny Michael. In later years the disk would affectionately become known as "Milk", because with it you had a GRAM Kracker and Milk. The product is capably reviewed by 9640 News Editor Beery Miller in the October 1986 newsletter of the Mid-South 99ers User Group in Memphis, TN. As an aside, several of the features in GK Utility I would show up in the 1987 Super Extended BASIC module released by MG (Craig and Susan Miller, dba Millers Graphics, then later just MG) through Triton Products Inc.

GOOD, DR. CHARLES: Assistant Professor of Botany at Ohio State University Lima Campus, TI historian extrodinaire, long time member and newsletter contributor of the Lima, Ohio TI Users Group.

GORFIA PESTULITUS: Extended Software - Released 1982 - MSRP $9.95 -- Program provides joystick control of a laser sight or control of inertia influenced space mines, used to shoot down the invading Gorfians. Available in disk or tape format. Joysticks are required.

GRAMULATOR: CADD Electronics - Released May 1988 - MSRP $180.00 -- A GRAM simulator designed by Mark Van Coppenolle and Mike Wright ala the GRAM Kracker from Millers Graphics, and GRAM Karte from Mechatronics GmbH, but with key differences that made it more convenient to use. The following information is taken from a GRAMULATOR information brochure.

The GRAMULATOR simulates 64K of GRAM and 16K of RAM (in two 8K banks at >6000—>7fff) and as an option 32K of RAM (in four 8K banks at >6000—>7fff) for the Milton Bradley Expansion (MBX) cartidges.
You can customize the built-in TI operating system in GROM 0 and TI BASIC in GROMS 1 and 2.
You can backup your GROM and ROM cartridges to disk to protect your investment and reduce wear on the cartridge port. All TX, Atarisoft and Parker Brothers cartridges work fine. MDX cartridges work with option installed.
Acts as a “Super Space” cartridge allowing you to run programs requiring RAM at >6000—>7fff (including Myarc’s XDII)
Allows you to use a customized GROM 0, 1 or 2, while a cartridge is in the slot. One application is that you can use your own character set with a cartridge like TI-Writer.
Capable of loading user written GPL code.
A total 96K (80K available for use without. /mbx option) of memory with lithium battery backup.
Battery located outside, case for easy replacement.
All loading and saving of cartridges is software controlled for ease of use by the novice.
All cartidges files saved and loaded by the GRAMULATOR are compatible with GENEVE 9640 and the Gram Kracker by MG (except MBX files).

The software needed to load and save GRAM and GROM will be built in for instant access. A memory editor,which will be supplied on disk, will allow you to alter and save any program loaded into the built-in GROM or RAM. User documentation and technical information will also be included. Memory Expansion and a disk drive are REQUIRED to take advantage of the GRAMULATOR. At a cost of $180.00 the GRAMULATOR, with all the features listed above, would be a worthwhile investment for any TI-99/4A owner. Information on the MBX option will be available for user installation or can be ordered at the time of purchase for an additional $50.00.

GRAND RAM: DataBioTics - Released 1987 - MSRP $129.95 to $229.95 depending upon RAM installed -- A RAM Disk designed by Paul Urbanus for DataBioTics. Up to four (4) supposedly could be placed in the 99/4A Peripheral Expansion Box, providing more than 2MB of RAM Disk. Advertised as being compatible with TI, CorComp, Myarc, Geneve, Morning Star and Foundation peripherals. Accesories offered included an emulator to create cartridges, a real-time clock and an analog to digital device to interface with other devices. (MICROpendium Aug87, p.41)

GRAND RAM CONTROVERSY: Richard Fleetwood, of the Forest Lane Users Group in Dallas, TX, reporting in the group's March newsletter, offers the following February 28th status report on the group's GRAND RAM orders. "Yesterday I called DaTaBioTics again to get the status of our order for six Grand Rams. After talking to Bill Moseid, he transferred me to Mike Evanbar, who is responsible for keeping track of all orders and shipments. Mike and I talked at length about the Grand Rams, Innovative Programming, Galen Read and DaTaBioTics. He was quite helpful and seemed very sincere in his answers, and he held nothing back, answering some very pointed questions. According to Mike, the Grand Rams have actually started shipping. Quantity? An even dozen - 6 the first week and 6 this past week. After 2 months of heavy testing of the boards, they finally passed all final tests and beta usage. The biggest delay has been caused by Innovative Programming, run by Galen Read. Galen was contracted to write the software for the card, after development and hardware was done by Paul Urbanus. Galen screwed up, didn't do what he promised, and broke the terms of the contract. DaTaBioTics yanked all work away from Galen, and contracted again with Paul (Urbanus) to finish the software. While all this was going on, Innovative Programming was still taking orders for the Grand Rams, upwards of $10,000 worth according to Mike (over $2,000 just from two local Dallas Users Groups, us and DTIHCG). I.P. gave DataB a down payment of $1,500, a partial list of customer orders and nothing else. At this moment DaTaBioTics is preparing a lawsuit against Galen to recover all the names and cash. For those who ordered and haven't received anything, contact DaTaBioTics. Mike said that DaTaBioTics will see to it that all orders will be filled, and is accepting the loss (if there is one) on this first year of production. As for shipping dates, Mike said they are taking delivery of the first big production of 100 baords this week (March 1st thru 5th), which will take 7-10 days for stuffing and testing. Docs for kits and complete boards are not complete yet either, but will be done shortly. Mike says that outstanding orders will be filled in 3 to 4 weeks. More news next month. =RAF="

GRAPHX: PO Box C568 Sydney, NSW 2000 Australia firm which produced the Graphx artist design program in 1985. Authors were listed as R. Davis and C. Davis.

GRATZ, BRIAN: Texas Instruments User Group Coordinator in 1981, who would later turn over this responsibility to John Yantis. Yantis would ultimately hire Ed Wiest to become the User Group Coordinator.

GREAT MODULE REVIEW PROJECT, THE: THE GREAT MODULE REVIEW by John E. Taylor and other members of the Shoals 99ers. The reviews in this project were originally published in the August 1985 issue of Shoals Tidings, newsletter of the long defunct Shoals 99ers from Muscle Sheals AL. The senior author, known to some long time TIers as JET, wrote some good fairware for the 99/4A back then. This very comprehensive review of official TI cartridges should be a useful reference document to any 99/4A owner even today. Only a few common modules are missing from this review, inluding Speech Editor and the MBX games. -- Charles Good (Lima, OH Bits, Bytes & Pixels Newsletter editor)
    The Great Module Review is a project I started at last month's general meeting. I have noticed that the prices on most all modules have dropped drastically in the last few months. However, even at $5+ dollars, there are so many it is hard to choose. Most modules are listed as just a title and nothing more. I hated to think that a really good one might get by me and be gone forever. For that reason I asked and got about 8 people to volunteer to review some modules. First I got a list of every module the volunteers had. It totaled up to 68 different modules. Then I asked everyone to review specific modules and give you the information that they thought you'd like to know if you were thinking about purchasing it. The reviews are the opinion of those that reviewed them and should be looked at as a guide only. One person's junk could just be another's treasure. Take a look at the current catalogs at the meetings and I am sure the prices will suprise you. The Modules have been sorted into alphabetical order within 5 groups -- Education, Games, Home Use, Languages, and Utilities. I hope that you enjoy the reviews and that it helps you to re-discover all of the module software that is available before they are all gone. John E. Taylor (JET) August 1985

GREENBERG, ARNOLD C.: President of Coleco Industries at the time it produced the Adam computer, and when it announced in January 1985 that it was dropping the Adam and leaving the low-end computer market to Atari and Commodore. The product looked like a winner. It would cost only $600 at a time when comparable equipment sold for about twice as much. With a gentle jab at a competitor, Adam was going to bite the Apple. But sales foundered when the machine turned out to be plagued with glitches. Even a price cut to $499 and several new features were not enough to save the product. The company took an estimated $110 million write-off against 1984 earnings because of the Adam flop.

GRINNING GOBBLERS: The relentless enemy in Jawbreaker II (PHM 3194) that must be evaded by the game player.

GROMBUSTER: Nav 102 - Released 2Q/1984 - MSRP $39.95 -- A Navarone Industries produced I/O port plug-in that was designed to overcome Texas Instruments' 1983 v2.2 operating system modification. In a stunning move to shoot themselves in their other foot, TI modified the operating system of some of the later, beige colored consoles, so that 3rd-Party GROM cartridges that were not produced under TI's licensing program, would not run on this new "Quality Enhanced" 99/4A computer. Texas Instruments had already shot itself in one foot in June 1983 by announcing its intent to sue anyone who produced a cartridge program for the 99/4A without first licensing its distribution through Texas Instruments.

TI's basis for this lawsuit happy attitude was their patents on GROM (Graphics Read-Only Memory) chips they used in the 99/4A console and in the cartridges they produced for the TI-99/4A Home Computer. Unfortunately for Texas Instruments, and for Navarone's sales of the Grombuster , most accomplished assembly language programmers knew how to avoid having to access the GROM chips at all. So the TI efforts to lock maverick 3rd-Party manufacturers out of the console were not entirely successful, which probably didn't help the sales of the Grombuster ?

GUARDIAN: Softmail - SOF 101D - Released 1984 - MSRP $26.95 -- A 1 or 2 player game which pits you against an army of evil robots intent on capturing your city. The robits try to steal all of the energy pods which provide food, comfort and entertainment. Requires 32K memory expansion and Editor/Assembler.

GUION, JOHN: John Guion was 22 years old when he died in an auto accident September 8th, 1989. He gave us the Multi-Mod upgrade to Triton's Super Extended Basic module, the P-Gram card and other projects.

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