относящихся к домашнему компьютеру TI-99/4A

DATA BASE MANAGERS: Following is a list of some of the more visible data base managers that were written for the TI-99/4A Home Computer. Some were pure assembly language coded such as TI-Base, some a mixture of  assembly language and Extended BASIC such as Acorn 99, while others were coded solely in Extended BASIC like Westernware's Data Base X.

ACORN 99 - Oak Tree Systems (Charles Davis)
AUTOMATIC FILER - Eastbench Software Products
CARD FILE - Bill Gaskill
CARD FILE - Christopher Flynn
CARD TRIX - Randy Thompson
CREATE-A-FILE - Arro-Soft Systems
DATAMAN - Easy Ware
DBMS - Navarone Industries
DATA BASE I - SPC Software (Stephen Flanagan)
DATA BASE 24 - author unknown
DATA BASE 99 - Quality 99 Software (Mark Shillingburg)
DATA BASE 300/500 - IUG Master 99 Series (Dave Nichols)
DATA BASE X - Western Ware
E-FILES 99 - VMC Software
FIRST BASE - Olympus Technologies (Warren Agee)
MAXIBASE - Frank W. Wolynski
PERSONAL PEARL - Morning Star Software (CP/M Card Required)
PR-BASE 1.0, 1.2, 2.0 - William Warren
PR-BASE 2.1 - William Warren with modifications by Mike Dodd
S-FILES & S-REPORTS - Shepard Software
TAX/INVESTMENT RECORD KEEPING - Texas Instruments (financial data only)
TI-BASE - Inscebot Inc. (Dennis Faherty)

DATA WEST SALES: 3916 Swallow Salt Lake City, UT 84107 (801) 261-4744 company who placed an ad in Compute! Dec83, p.391 offering a floppy disk drive upgrade kit for only $39.00, plus $9 extra to access a 3rd drive. The kit included a new power supply cable, a DSK2 ribbon cable, easy instructions to install disk drives, and a template to show how to modify the Peripheral Expansion Box to accept the upgrades.


4A/Talk -- DBD04A also DBDOTA
Average Bear Writer (disk or cassette) -- DBC0AB
Bitmac -- DBDOBI
Disk Master I -- DBD0DM
Miniwriter I -- DBCOM1
Miniwriter II -- DBMOM2
Miniwriter III -- DBMOM3
Miniwriter II+ -- DBM1M2
Miniwriter III -- DBCAM3
Miniwriter III+ -- DBM1M3
Paraprint -- DBP0PP
Pilot -- DBD0PI
Renoir -- DBMORE
Super 4th -- DBD1SF
Superdisk -- DBPOSD
Superspace I -- DBC0SS
Superspace II -- DBC2SS
The Label Maker (disk) -- DBD0LA
The Label Maker (cassette) -- DBC0LA

DATA BASE 1: SPC Software - Released 1985 - MSRP $29.95 -- Stephen Flanagan created dbms that is best suited for mailing lists or other LIST type data files. Cumbersome design setup requires records to be accessed by their relative position in the file (record number). You must first list the records by a specified field if you don’t know the record number. Time consuming. Provides three pre-set mailing label report formats and one custom format for your own design. Will not do reports that have heading information. Includes several nice utilities, such as a form letter generator and disk file data base which creates a DB1 data base file out of the information on your library of disks. Does not provide for input checking nor length of field entries. Looks only at the length of overall record. Does searches by “equal to” operator on only one data field at a time. Requires that you first create an index file and then search. To search by another field you must create another index file. Searches by a maximum of five characters in any field. Sorts are limited to 1,000 records no matter how many exist in the file, but both alpha and numeric sorts are offered. Sub- files can be created to a printer in the main program or to disk by using the Utilities options. Selection is by “equal to” or “between two values” which can be either alpha or numeric type.

DATA BASE 99: Quality 99 Software - Released 1984 - MSRP $39.95 -- Mark Shillingburg creation that was written in Extended BASIC with assembly language support routines. More emphasis put on copy protection than on program performance. Allows custom screen design and claims 28 fields of up to 28 characters each. Would be a neat trick to do since four of the 24 rows on screen are used by program prompts.

Fast assembly language interface for report generation. Cannot generate reports with headings and does not permit printer control codes to be inserted in report data. Does not save a format after design so you will have to re-create it each time you want a report. Data is printed in continuous format without regard to page breaks or anything else. Design of layout is cumbersome, requiring you to conceptualize how many colons or semicolons are needed to push the data across the page. Number of colons/semicolons is limited to 127 characters allowed in a LINPUT command. A terrible system.

Disk catalog accessed from main menu will crash program if you enter an alpha character instead of a number when it prompts for the disk drive number to be cataloged. Color is lost after a crash since it was CALLed from the LOAD program. Does not permit single record screen print (unless you buy the DB 99 Utilities), must use EDIT option to search for a record or search sequentially. Cannot go directly to a record by its relative position in the file. Will create subfiles to disk allowing the search by “less than, equal to or greater than” operators. Search is limited to one field for all practical purposes.

Sorts can be performed in ascending order, by any one field. Sort is an actual rewrite of the file. All data is considered string information. No number crunching (unless you buy the DB99 Utilities), no input checking. Documentation consists of two 8½вЂќ X 11’, sheets of paper printed on both sides. Program is slow, inflexible, inconvenient in many ways and cumbersome to use. It might have been an advanced application some years ago. Today it is a dinosaur, even with the DB99 Utilities. Much too expensive.

DATABASE 500/300: IUG - Released 1983 - MSRP $14.95 - A PRK-like flat file database manager that used CALL KEY to accept input, making data entry incredibly slow.

DATAMOST: 8943 Fullbright Ave. Chatsworth, CA 91311 (213) 709-1202.

DATAX: This was a company best known for it's TI-123, Da-Tax Auditor and The Brain programs. It was owned by Julian Achim, who apparently had some business relationship with a gentleman named Mike Bergen. I mention Bergen because he is the person who announced to the TI World in June 1985 that Datax was leaving the TI market and all of its software was being placed in the public domain. A short time later the whole story was retracted though. Wonder what was behind that? I ordered the Da-Tax Auditor in October 1986 (I sent my money in like a dummy) and made several telephone calls over the next four months trying to find out why it never showed up. Finally, in January 1987 someone picked up the telephone and it turned out to be Mr. Achim. When I asked him about the status of my 4-month old order, he very calmly replied that he was busy working on the IBM version of the program and I would have to wait. I did get the program eventually, and it was also received in time for me to do my 1986 taxes. Nevertheless, I cried no tears when the company moved to Florida in October 1987 and eventually left the TI m

DAVISON, STUART: A programmer and business owner who pointed out to John Koloen and Laura Burns in the January 1985 issue of MICROpendium on page 10, that the winning program in the MICROpendium 1000 byte or less programming contest was over 1500 bytes. Also the owner of BEYOND, a business operating out of 2575 N. Country Club #F-6 Tucson, AZ 85716 in 1984 when it advertised TI-99/4A compatible single cassette cables in the May 1984 issue of Computer Shopper, p.136, and out of 2849 N. Flanwill Tucson, AZ 85716 when it advertised Fontmaster for the TI-99/4A in the August 1985 issue of MICROpendium on page 22.

DE-CYPHER: Extended Software - One of  four games included in the Games Pak II bundle, along with Artillery, Flip Checkers and Puzzle 15.

DEALER PRICING: Although I've yet to discover a document telling me what the margin was in previous years, in 1983 retail outlets for TI-99/4A Home Computer software (not hardware) were given a 34.9% profit margin on cartridge software sold at manufacturer's suggested retail price. Cassette tape software was not a big mover apparently, as margins varied by title. For example,  Plato titles retailed for $49.95, with the cost to a dealer being  $32.50. The M icrosurgeon game cartridge retailed for $39.95, with the cost to an authorized dealer being $26.00. PHT 6007, the cassette tape version of Teach Yourself BASIC retailed for $24.95 and the dealer had to pay $19.50, indicating that cassette tape sales were not lucraive, nor were they being pushed by Texas Instruments.

DEATH DRONES: Moonbeam Software - Released 1982 - MSRP $14.95 -- A disk or cassette tape game, playable in TI BASIC or Extended BASIC. Joysticks optional. Came with a 90-day warranty. According to the package, "Your city is under attack by relentless Alien Drones! They are unmanned satellites from the far reaches of the galaxy, coming to destroy your world! Each drone is programmed to first seek out and eliminate your ship and then to drop its payload on the nuclear reactor that you have been assigned to defend...Can you protect your nuclear reactor or will your city be reduced to rummble by the devastating nuclear explosions? An exciting, fast-paced, action game.

DEATH OF A COMPUTER: A 13-page article published in the April 1984 issue of Texas Monthly magazine, written by Joseph Nocera. It has evolved into the single-best historical look at the conception, birth, life and death of the TI-99 Home Computer. Apparently because of the article, the April 1984 issue of Texas Monthly was sold out in less than a month. Nocera covers alot of territory in the article including an explanation of the the TI corporate culture, the four critical mistakes TI made which ultimately led to the death of the 99/4A, TI's failure to understand the market they expected to sell the computer in, the great price war follies they engaged in with Commodore Electronics, the tremendous financial losses incurred and the decision to bailout of the Home Computer market. The complete text of the article may be found on The Cyc by Mike Wright, which is a CD packed with information specific to the TI-99/4A. See CaDD Electronics in the ADDRESS BOOK on this web-site for ordering address. The price is $24.95.

DEATHRACE 2000: A game produced for the Exidy Sorcerer that was so violent for the time that it was forced of the video game market. The object of the game was for the player, driving around in a car, to run people down and kill them. Victims were replaced by a cross on the screen.

DE-CYPHER: Extended Software - Released 1982 - MSRP $9.95 -- An encrypted message is displayed and guesses change all corresponding letters to the guess . Come with 50 messages, which can be changed.

DECATHLON: decathlon Pewterware - Tenex #10622- Released 1980 - MSRP $10.00 -- A TI BASIC game written by Thomas Krohn dba Pewterware, that offers the player an opportunity to compete in the ten Olympic Decathlon Events . The object of the game is accumulate the most points by competing in the ten events.  For each of the events the player(s) must make an input to the keyboard or joystick at a precise time following a tone - 1 second for event 1, up to 10 seconds for event ten. The ten events are:
#01 - 100 Meter Run - best score 9.95 seconds
#02 - Long Jump - best score 27.75 feet
#03 - Shot Put - best score 69.46 feet
#04 - High Jump - best score 7.5 feet
#05 - 400 Meter Run - best score 44.12 seconds
#06 - 110 Meter Hurdles - best score 13.01 seconds
#07 - Discus - best score 222 feet
#08 - Pole Vault - best score 17.5 feet
#09 - Javelin - best score 300.81 feet
#10 - 1500 Meter Run - best score 214.25 seconds.  

The running events require only one input from each player prior to the race. The non-running events require an input for each of three attempts. Available on cassette tape only. From 1 to 8 people can play simultaneouly. Use of joysticks to compete in the Decathlon is supported, but not required.    

DECIMALS: PHM 3096 - Released 4Q/1982 - MSRP $39.95 -- A Milliken Math Series cartridge.

User Comments (provided by John E. Taylor and other members of the Shoals 99er User Group in 1985): The decimals module is divided into 56 levels of difficulty, covering material generally taught in grades five through eight. The program provides practice in recognizing decimals as fraction, determining the order of decimals, rounding decimals, and doing arithmetic with decimals. Children add, subtract, multiply, and divide numbers. This program assumes that your child has mastered basic arithmetic and a certain degree of mental computation.

LEVELS 1-11 -- Your child deals with relations and numbers in these first 11 levels. They are asked to tell which number is greater (>) and which numbers are smaller (<). Equals (=) is also discussed in this section. A progress report is displayed on the bottom of the screen so you can see how you are doing at all times. Only one chance is given to answer correctly problems or questions that have only two or three possible answers. At least two chances are given to answer problems with many possible answers.
LEVELS 12-20 -- In these levels you deal with addition of and using decimals.
LEVELS 21-30 -- Subtraction is explained in these next groups. Learners are introduced to borrowing.
LEVELS 31-39 and 40-49 -- Here you are introduced to multiplication using decimals.
LEVELS 36-39 and 50-56 -- This is where division is taught. Beginning at level 50 you are shown and drilled on how to find the correct decimal place. Level 51 gives direction in moving the decimal point. As you progress you are moved to higher and harder levels. You can move to different levels or back up at any time if you feel thay you need more help.

This module comes from the MILLIKEN MATH SERIES. They also produce modules in math that start with kindergarden age and go up. They have a very fine series of modules for education.

DECIMAL DELI 2: The screen title to Scott, Foresman and Company's Decimals 2 education cartridge programmed by Thomas Hartsig. It contained practice and training on Place Value, Comparing and Ordering, Counting Places, Multiplying Decimals, Zeros In The Product and Applying Decimals. The code for the cartridge exists as a Gram file and can be obtained from the Lima, OH 99ers.

DEFENDER:  Atarisoft RX8506 - Released 4Q/1983 - MSRP $44.95 -- This game was a port from the original Williams Electronics arcade game that was written by Eugene P. Jarvis, Larry DeMar, Sam Dicker and Paul Dussault. It was licensed by Atari and also ported to the VIC-20 (RX8507), the C64 (RX8508). According to the documentation, which does not carry a product number, "Now, the thrill of the Arcade Game at Home." The object of the game is to rescue Humanoids in your space craft.
DeMARS, BOB: Owner of Specialist In, a former Minnetonka, MN vendor of TI-99 products.

DEMOLITION DIVISION: PHM 3116 - Released 1Q/1983 - MSRP $39.95 - This educational cartridge is part of the DLM Arcademictm Skill Builder Series of mathematics 'arcade games'...which is math taught through the use of an arcade game format. It was created for the TI-99/4A by Developmental Learning Materials of Richardson, Texas, and coded by Brenda Lehman, Debbie Perich and Mary Anne Six. According to the documentation (1053590-1016) An arcade game format provides fun and challenge while increasing math skills in division of problems with answers from 0 to 9. Suitable for children from grades 3 through 11". The program helps children increase speed and accuracy in division problems with answers 0-9. The format for the program involves green tanks with problems on their sides advancing towards a battery of four blue guns that are the defenders. A correct answer to a problem allows the guns to be fired. Developmental Learning Materials created a total of six math arcade games for the 99/4A:.

Alien Addition (PHM 3115)
Alligator Mix (PHM 3114)
Demolition Division (PHM 3116)
Dragon Mix (PHM 3117)
Meteor Multiplication (PHM 3119)

DEMONSTRATION: PHM 3001 - Released 2Q/1979 - MSRP $69.95 - A very impressive (for 1979) cartridge designed to show off the capabilities of the TI-99/4 Home Computer. It makes reference to the Thermal Printer, RS-232 Interface, and the ability to chain peripherals. It also mentions or makes reference to the Chess, Beginning Grammar, Football, Physical Fitness and Weight Control and Nutrition cartridges. According to the documentation (1037109-1) "This module is designed to provide a complete, automatic, and easy-to-use demonstration of the various features of the Texas Instruments Home Computer. A preview of the Solid State Software command modules is included".

Introductory Segment -- Eye and ear catching "attention-getter", with general information.
Information Segment -- In-depth presentation on specific applications of the computer in home finance, education, family health and entertainment.
Demonstration Segment -- Step by step demonstrations on Loan Analysism Beginning Grammar, Footbal and details of the TI-99's specifications.
Closing Segment -- Introduces accessories planned and available, lists growing Command Module library.

DENALI DATA: Oklahoma City, OK firm owned by Peter Cookman that provided extensive support for TI-99/4 owners in 1980, 1981, and 1982 with such products as the Denali Backer-Bustm, Arti-Stic joystick adapter, and numerous software packages. The company also provided support for the TI-99/4A owner, but to a lesser degree, since the introduction of the Peripheral Expansion Box by Texas Instruments in 1982 eliminated the need for one of Denali Data's major offerings (the Backer-Bus tm )

DEVELOPMENTAL LEARNING MATERIALS: Developmental Learning Materials is/was a Dallas, Texas based business that was founded by Jerry Chaffin and Bill Maxwell of the University of Kansas. Besides the Arcademic software it produced (listed below), DLM was also involved in the production of Walt Disney titles for the 99/4A in 1984. For a short time after the demise of the TI-99/4A Home Computer, former TI programmers John Phillips and Michael Archuleta worked at DLM.

Arcademic Skill Builders: This approach to learning uses an arcade game format, colorful graphics, and lively action to create an exciting atmosphere for practicing important learning skills. The approach is based upon the principles of:

Persistence and Involvement
Success in Learning
High Rate of Learning
Evidence of Improvement
Individual Needs

TI-99/4A Cartridge titles produced by DLM:

Alien Addition (PHM 3115)
Alligator Mix (PHM 3114)
Demolition Division (PHM 3116)
Dragon Mix (PHM 3117)
Meteor Multiplication (PHM 3119)
Minus Mission (PHM 3118)
Verb Viper (PHM ????) - never produced for the ti-99/4a
Word Invasion (PHM 3169)
Word Radar (PHM 3185)

DLM also produced Arcademic Skill Builder games for the Apple II+, the Apple IIe, the Atari 800, the IBM PC and the Commodore 64. In addition to all of the titles for the TI-99/4A that are listed above, the "other" computers had; Spelling Wiz, Word Man, and Word Master available for them. According to an email interview that Bryan Ropollo conducted with Jerry Chaffin in 1999, the rarest of the DLM cartridges would be the language-based programs Word Invasion and Word Radar. The reason for this was the contract between Texas Instruments and DLM called for TI to be allowed to sell 12,000 cartridges for a particular title before paying DLM any royalties. Since DLM never received a dime for either of these cartridge titles, it was assumed by Chaffin that neither title ever sold the required 12,000 copies so DLM could recoup their investment. See also: Compute! Sep83, p.261.

DIABLO: Extended Software - Released 1983 - MSRP $19.95 -- With 116 moveable panels, this marble-moving game requires strategy, planning and decisive control to keep the ever-advancing ball from rolling off the board. Every board is different. Unfortunately, the game play is so S  L  O  W that you have all the time you want to plan your moves.

DIAGNOSTIC: PHM 3000 - Released 2Q/1979 - MSRP $29.95 -- The first cartridge released for the TI-99/4. Officially announced in June 1979. Very few were ever sold apparently since Texas Instruments did not really push the product. No similar module ever appeared for the TI-99/4A. As the title of the cartridge suggests, the program contained a series of utilities which allowed the user to analyze the various "systems" that made up their computer. According to the documentation (1037109-99) "With the Diagnostic Command Module, service technicians, sales clerks, and computer owners can verify proper operation of the Texas Instruments Home Computer. This step by step guide allows you to quickly compare the computer's operation against the displays and descriptions given for each test". Tests provided with this cartridge included:

Keyboard function
Randon Access Memory
Video Display
Sound-Tones and Noise Calculations

DIBBLE, KEN: Author of Draw Poker (1982, TI99, Counterpoint Software), Spy's Demise with Mark Sumner (1982, TI99, CSI Design Group) and WarDroids, with Mark Sumner (1986, MAC, Silicon Beach).

DICKERSON, ROBERT: Author of  the assembly language coded game Dragon Game, marketed by Futura Software. See Winter/Spring 1985 Tenex Catalog, page 8 for game description.

DICKS, PAUL MICHAEL: Founding member of the British TI User Group and editor if the TI Home TIdings newsletter in 1981. (99/4 Home Computer Users-Group Newsletter, Aug 1981, p.4)

DIG DUG: Atarisoft
Dig Dug
DIGIBYTE: A 31 East 31st Street New York, NY 10016 vendor who advertised the TI-99/4 Home Computer in December 1979. Their price for the complete system, which consisted of the console and 13" color monitor was $1049.00.

DIGISYNT: 1994 -- Stefano Bonomi

DIRECT WRITER WORD PROCESSOR: Dynamic Data and Devices - Released 4Q/1982 - MSRP $48.00 -- An Extended BASIC word processor with assembly language support routines that allows over 200 pages of text to be printed. Includes true lower case letters. Has two modes of display, a Scroll Mode to allow lines of text to be viewed in their entirety, and Window Mode, which provides viewing of text in a horizontal, lne-by-line format, just as the text will appear when printed. Features automatic centering, right justification and string search/replace. Requires  XB, 32K Memory Expansion, disk system and a serial or Thermal Printer.

DISABLING QUIT KEY: To disable Fctn Quit in Extended BASIC, enter CALL INIT :: CALL LOAD(-31806,16) either from the *READY* prompt, or from within a program, to disable Fctn = (aka the Quit Key).

DISABLING SPRITES: In TI Extended BASIC, this may be done by the CALL LOAD(-31878,0) statement .

DISK DRIVE: PHP 1250 -- See Peripheral Expansion Box Disk Drive.

DISK DRIVE CONTROLLER CARD: PHP 1240 -- See Peripheral Expansion Box Disk Drive Controller.

DISK DRIVE CONTROLLER: PHP 1800 -- Released 2Q/1980 - MSRP $299.95 -- A standalone disk drive controller, released in April 1980, that was designed to control up to three Disk Memory Drives (PHP 1850). Came with the PHM 3019 Disk Manager command module (not available separately) and a 9" X 6" sized black, red and white colored 53-page manual.


DISK MEMORY DRIVE: PHP 1850 - Released 1Q/1980 - MSRP $499.95 -- In conjunction with the Disk Drive Controller, the use of one to three of these standalone disk drives allows you to quickly and efficiently store additional Information that you wish to keep and refer to at a later time on 5 1/4' mini-floppy disks. Each disk memory drive will store up to 92,000 characters if information on a disk. In addition, it allows you to run many TI and third party software programs which are not available in command modules or cassettes and to use those which require the storage and manipulation of large amounts of data such as Tax/Investment Record Keeping and Household Budget Management. (Unisource 1983)

DISK DUPLICATOR: One of the never released command modules for the TI for which code actually exists.

DISK MANAGER: PHM 3019 -- Released 1Q/1980 -- The original Disk Manager cartridge released by Texas Instruments for use with the PHP 1800 stand alone Disk Controller and PHP 1850 stand alone disk drive.

DISK MANAGER 2: PHM 3089 - Released 4Q/1982 - MSRP $9.95 -- A disk manager program that was capable of handling 40-track disks as opposed to the original Disk Manager command module program, which was written for 35 track disks, a totally non-standard format. Originally released by Model Masters of Diamond Bar, California in December 1982 on disk. Made available by Texas Instruments as a cartridge in March 1983. Offered as a $9.95 upgrade to the Disk Manager I module. TI began shipping it with all disk drive controllers in May 1983.

DISK MANAGER 3: One of the never released command modules for the TI for which code actually exists. DM3 supported four disk drives instead of only three as previous versions did. It also sported the ability to initialize DS/DD floppies, but in a non-standard 1280 sectors per disk instead of the more common 1440 sectors per disk.

DISK MANAGER IV: Quality 99 Software -- Released ???? -- MSRP $19.95 -- Program that was advertised as "the ONLY resident disk manager program. Load it once and it is always ready for instant use." Provides all the features of TI's Disk Manager II except the disk tests. Activates at the touch of a key. Compatible with all existing disk controllers and RAM disks for the TI-99.

DISK MASTER I: DaTaBioTics - Released 1985 - MSRP $19.95 - A Todd Kaplan authored disk manager and sector editor rolled into one program. Aside from the fact that it is copy-protected (as are all DBT programs), so it can not be used on a Ram Disk, I favor this application over DM1000. It is well-written, stable, and the user-interface is very logically organized.

DISK MEMORY DRIVE BOOKLET: For model PHP 1850 -- A 10-page, 8.5" X 11" publication with a typed and photocopied look to it that was packed with the first disk drives sold for use with the 99/4 Home Computer. The publication is dated 4/80 and contains Set Up, General Notes, Connecting the Disk Drives Service and Warranty and Troubleshooting sections. The more professionally printed manual that followed later in 1980 was 9" X 6" with a glossy white cover and 53 pages of information for the user's benefit.

DISK OF MEDIEVAL TIMES: Notung Software - Released 1992 - MSRP $15.00 -- As far as I can recall, Disk of Medieval Times is the last in a series of "Disk of..." artwork and infobase creations by West Coast artist, programmer and businessman Ken Gilliland.  In this series the author again shows off his artistic prowess through a series of  more than two dozen TI-Artist renderings (Fonts, Instances, and Pictures) covering the age of Chivalry. The artwork is freely offered to the purchaser for use in their own TI-Artist compatible program or application; no royalties or licensing required.  Topping that off is the inclusion of the "Legends of Valor" game, which pits you against another knight in a jousting match. Medieval Times comes on four (4) SS/SD floppy disks designated A-D. Disk A is the loader for the artwork and infobase, with Disks B and C containing text and artwork that are accessed from the main menu loaded from Disk A.  Disk D contains the "Legends of Valor" game. All infobase files are created in the non-proprietary Display/Variable 80 format, allowing them to be loaded and printed in TI-Writer or any of its clones. A superior product in a series of superior "Disk of..." products from Notung Software owner Ken Gilliland.

DISK OF PYRATES: disk of pyrates Notung Software - Released 1991 - MSRP $10.00 --  A set of four (4) SS/SD floppy disks from West Coast artist Ken Gilliland that was originally intended to be sold as two (2) flippy diskettes, containing original handdrawn artwork, pirate music, a "Pyrate Adventure" game  and an infobase containing articles and information about the era of swashbucklers and buccaneers. The "Pyrates" set has a disk labeled Instances & Histories which contains animated artwork and text explaining the 'Origin of the Buccaneers', and animated artwork and text telling about the fate of those pirates who were 'Sentenced to be Marooned'. The author tells you on the opening screen (and in the instruction manual) that the animated artwork does not load properly on systems using the Myarc Disk Controller nor on Geneve 9640 systems.

The disk labeled Animation & Instances contains a huge infobase (327 sectors) about pirate personalities, a general history of pirates, a glossary of pirate terms and even pirate poetry. To the reader's benefit, it takes advantage of J. Peter Hoddie's public domain 40 column text reader, that was distributed on the Genial Traveler Diskazine, to provide quick displays and smooth scrolling of information.

The disk labeled Fonts & Instances contains...you guessed it, pirate fonts and instances. The disk labeled Games, Music & Pictures loads a menu that offers the option to play the pirate adventure game known as "Return To Treasure Island", which the author tells us is an extensive rewrite of G.J. Smith's original version published in 99er Magazine. Another option is to run a pirate sing along program that supports speech if you have the TI Solid State Speech Synthesizer attached. The next option is the Pyrate Picture Show which showcases Ken Gilliland's handdrawn artwork. Fabulous! Lastly, Mr. Gilliland gives the purchaser version 3.1 of his conversion program that will convert any TI-Artist Instance to an executable Extended Basic program.  See also MICROpendium Jan92, p.31 for a review of this product.

DISK OF THE ANCIENT ONES: Notung Software - Released 1992 - MSRP $15.00 -- A set of four SS/SD disks, labeled A through D, by Ken Gilliland of Tujunga, CA, that contain TI-Artist graphics images of ancient Egypt and the Middle East. Included are several articles that give an historical overview of that time period, Scenes from the ages, The Labyrinth of Minos game, and (get this!) a Hieroglyphics translator game!  The Labyrinth of Minos game is written in Extended BASIC, with many screen refreshes required as one travels through the labyrinth. This causes slow play, but the games is still enjoyable. The Hieroglyphics Translator game requires joysticks and a dot-matrix printer. The package focuses on the time period from 5,000 B.C. to 300 A.D. and includes "lots of TI-Artist styled graphics in Picture_P, Instance_I and Slide_S formats. There is also a Font_F that will load in TI-Artist Plus completely, that must be split for earlier versions of TI-Artist".  According to author Ken Gilliland, a Disk of the Ancient Ones II was forthcoming, but I don't recall ever seeing it. Nonetheless, one can only be impressed with the quantity, quality and hours of labor that went into producing this set!

DISK OF THE OLD WEST:  Notung Software - Released 1992 - MSRP $15.00 -- A set of four (4) SS/SD disks by Ken Gilliland of Tujunga, CA., that according to the author, almost didn't get released after the disappointing sales of his earlier Disk of Pyrates product.  The disks are labeled A through D. Disk A contains the majority of the executable programs in the "Old West" set and offers the user a menu which lists Library of Legends, Portrait Gallery, Sing Along Saloon (the tune is Buffalo Gals), and Faro Gaming Parlor as options. When Library of Legends is selected you're asked to insert Disk D into DSK1. This is the infobase. It consists of several Display/Variable 80 files with information about famous/infamous characters of the Old West. The Portrait Galley option displays  the original artwork that Ken Gilliland is best known for, with images of the James brothers, the Younger brothers, the Earp brothers and more. The Faro Gaming option is a TI-99/4A Faro game. Disk B contains TI-Artist Pictures and Instances. Disk C contains TI-Artist Fonts, Pictures and Instances. Disk D contains the infobase files that are actually read by a program on Disk A accessed via the 'Library of Legends' option.  The oddity about the 'Disk of the Old West' product is that the instruction manual has the word definitely is misspelled as 'definately', which is the only typo or misspelling that I've ever seen in a Ken Gilliland product. I'm sorry to be pointing out something so picayune, but I do so with the greatest respect for a truly talented person. Typos, misspellings and the like rarely slip through the Ken Gilliland Quality Assurance process. When they do, it becomes noteworthy. :-)  See also MICROpendium Sep92, p.28 for a review of this product.

DISkASSEMBLER: Millers Graphics - UT03 - Released 1986 - MSRP $19.95 -- A program that allowed the user to disassemble assembly language object code files and view or print them in their source code format, in a two-pass disassembly procedure. Files to be disassembled could be loaded into memory or could be disassembled directly from disk. The program was written by assembly language programming wizard Thomas S. Freeman, a California Pediatrician and long-time TI-99/4A supporter.  The package included a cardstock thickness keyboard overlay, a professionally written and printed instruction manual and a copy protected floppy disk. The instruction manual was written by R. Kent Thomson, author of the EE Bondmaster software for the 99/4A, in collaboration with Tom Freeman. I bought this program simply because it was marketed by Craig Miller, whose Millers Graphics company in San Dimas, CA produced some of the most sophisticated, professional and neatly packaged applications created for the TI-99 in the post-bailout years. Unfortunately, I only used it a few times, mostly because I never understood assembly language, and couldn't make much sense out of what I was looking at in the end product. Nonetheless, DiskAssembler was yet another example of what talent and good marketing did for the TI-99/4A after Texas Instruments orphaned it.

DISKODEX: OPA - Released - MSRP$ -- A disk cataloging database application from Gary Bowser dba Oasis Pensive Abacutors.

DISNEY, WALT SOFTWARE: Although it never came to be, Walt Disney Productions actually advertised their support for the TI-99/4A, claiming that as many as 50 programs were forthcoming for Ataris, Radio Shack, NEC and TI computers? We know that some titles such as Von Drake's Molecular Mission, Peter Pan's Oddyssey and others were actually, written, but they never made it to market after TI announced the bailout on October 28, 1983.

DISPLAY MASTER: display master Inscebot - Released 1986 - MSRP $14.95 -- Display Master is designed to provide TI-Artist users with a means to display a series of TI-Artist images sequentially. The program also allows for the creation of captions, either on a separate blank screen, or superimposed over the image being displayed.  A built-in command file interpreter lets the user write script files that control the order of the display and certain characteristics of the screen. The script files can be created using the Editor/Assembler editor, the TI-Writer or compatible editor, so long as the end result is a DV/80 file devoid of any control characters. The presence of this interpreter appears to be a precursor to the one used some two years later in the Inscebot TI-Base data base manager that would take the TI World by storm in May 1988. (Contributions by Tyler Van Tighem)

DIVISION 1: PHM 3049 - Released 2Q/1982 - MSRP $39.95 --

User Comments (provided by John E. Taylor and other members of the Shoals 99er Uer Group in 1985): This module continues in the development of math skills with drills and exercises in division. Speech is optional with this module. Division 1 contains nine activities. The module will advance your child to more difficult activities if 80 percent of the problems are answered correctly. If less than 80 percent are answered correctly, the computer will return to the tutorial activity, providing more practice. The nine activities are as follows:

MEANING OF DIVISION -- Demonstrates the meaning of division by displaying a random number of objects and then evenly grouping these objects. The activity explains how many objects there are in all and how many objects there are in each group. Then the computer counts the groups for you. You are then asked to determined the number of groups.
DIVISORS OF 1,2,3 -- This activity displays a random number of objects evenly grouped in boxes and indicates how many objects there are. Then the corrssponding word sentence appears. The boxes are then counted, and the total moves to the answer position in the word sentence. The corresponding division number sentence appears below the word sentence. After displaying a random number of grouped objects, the drill uses divisors of 1,2, and 3 and asks you to complete the number sentence by determining the number of groups.
DIVISORS OF 4,5,6 -- Displays a random number of objects and indicates how many objects there are. Then the objects are evenly grouped. It is similar to activity 2 above but extends the randomization to include division problems using divisors 4,5, and 6. the drill asks you to complete the division sentence by indicating the number of groups.
DIVIDE USING -- Shows how the division sentence is rewritten in the vertical format. Evenly grouped objects and the corresponding horizontal division sentence appears on the display. The groups are counted and that number moves into place, completing the sentence. The numbers then move to form the vertical division format. The word sentence representing both formats appears next. The drill in this activity presents a series of problems in the vertical division format for you to solve.
PRACTICE AND PAINT -- Lets you creatively practice division facts for divisors 1 through 6. A painter's palette displays the numbers 1 through 9. A division problem appears in the center of the palette. You press the space bar to move the cursor clockwise around the numbers on the palette. When the correct nunber is reached you press <enter>. You have two chances to find the correct answer and the computer keeps score by "painting" a square in the score box each time a correct answer is given.
DIVISORS OF 7,8,9 -- Groups of objects to include divisors of 7,8, and 9. A random number of objects appears on the display. As the objects are grouped and the groups are counted, the horizontal division problem appears, followed by the vertical division problem. A check is given by multiplying the divisor and quotient together. You solve the problems in the drill by determining the answer to the horizontal or veriical division problem. If a wrong answer is given, multiples of the divisor are displayed to help you.
HOW MANY BOXES? -- Presents a word problem that identifies a number-grouping situation and introduces the concept of remainders. a random number of objects appears and then the objects are evenly grouped into boxes. The computer counts the remaining objects. The drill asks how many boxes are needed to group the objects evenly according to the situation presented in the word problem. After indicating the right number the computer counts the remaining objects.
DIVIDE WITH A REMAINDER -- Displays a vertical division problem with the corresponding number of objects above it. The problem is solved with the remainder being displayed. The drill presents vertical problems. You are asked to select the closest quotient. The divisor and quotient are multiplied and the answer is shown in the problem. Then you must solve for the remainder. If you can not work out the problem in two tries the computer will work you through the problem.
MAKE A PICTURE -- Asks you to solve division problems in both vertical and horizontal formats to create a picture. Each correct answer adds parts to the picture. You must get 10 problems right to complete the picture. If 80 percent of th problems are complete on the third picture, you can continue on to the activity "EXTRA FOR EXPERTS". Here you are given five multiplication and five division problems. You are asked to give the missing element in each problem.

DLM: See Developmental Learning Materials and Arcademic Skill Builders

DONKEY KONG: Atarisoft RX8512 - Released 4Q/1983 - MSRP $44.95 -- A port from the original Nintendo of America arcade game. It was licensed by Atari and also ported to the VIC-20 (RX8513), the C64 (RX8514). According to the documentation, which does not carry a product number, "Now, the thrill of the Arcade Game at Home." The object of the game is for Mario to rescue his girlfriend from Donkey Kong . Listening to a young man talk about the arcade version of this game, I was exposed for the very first time to the term "RAD", meaning that that he thought Donkey Kong was RADical...aka NEAT!

User Comments: Help Mario save his girl. Mario, the fearless carpenter, wants desperately to save his girlfriend from the clutches of Doinkey Kong, who holds her captive atop a mass of broken girders. Mario must scale four different structures to rescue his sweetheart. He always begins at the bottom of a stack of girders. Help true love, with only three chances to reach the top of the heap. Mario must climb ladders, leap over a barrage of bouncing barrels, jump ointo fast moving elevators to avoid fatal torching by fireballs, sidestep moving buckets of sand and complicated chains of conveyor belts while battleing the unrelenting fireballs. With a steady hand and true heart, let true love win out and make it one or the little guy.
Donkey Kong
DOOLEY, ROGER: Founder of Tenex Computer Express, a South Bend, IN computer retailing firm that specialized in TI-99/4A products from 1982 until 1989. Despite the company's status as a major supplier of Texas Instruments and Third-Party products for the 99/4A, Tenex was never an authorized TI Retailer.

DOVE, GRANT A.: A Senior Vice-President at Texas Instruments in June 1981 when he was appointed as TI's top marketing official by J. Fred Bucy. The move was in response to TI's lackluster home computer sales. Dove spread the gospel of "marketing" among the troops and immediately decided to increase radio and TV advertising for the home computer $10 million.

DOW-JONES INFORMATION SERVICES: PO Box 300 Princeton, NJ 08540 (609) 452-1511 firm that was an early player in the on-line computer services market. Never popular with the TI-99/4A Community, it was nonetheless featured in a 99er Magazine article in V1N2 (Jun/July 1981) page 16.

DRAGONMAW (The Volcano of Death): See Protector II.

DRAGON MIX: PHM 3117 - Released 1Q/1983 - MSRP $39.95 - This educational cartridge is part of the DLM Arcademictm Skill Builder Series of mathematics 'arcade games'...which is math taught through the use of an arcade game format. It was created for the TI-99/4A by Developmental Learning Materials of Richardson, Texas and coded by TI employee Mary Ann Six. According to the documentation (1053590-1017) "An arcade game format provides fun and challenge while increasing math skills in multiplication of numbers from 0 to 9 and division problems with answers from 0 to 9. Suitable for children from grades 3 through 11". The format for the program involves green tanks with problems on their sides advancing towards a battery of four blue guns that are the defenders. A correct answer to a problem allows the guns to be fired.

DRAGONSLAYER AMERICAN SOFTWARE CO.: 2606 Ponderosa Dr. Omaha, NE 68123 firm that produced the first TI-Writer spelling checker ever produced for the TI-99/4A. It retailed for $49.95 and required 32K RAM, disk and either the TI-Writer or Editor/Assembler cartridges. ( Home Computer Magazine V4N5, p.38)

DRAMIS, JAMES E.: Former Texas Instruments programmer who authored Car Wars, Munch Man and Parsec, as well as founding Sofmachine with Paul Urbanus and Garth Dollhite, a third-party software firm which produced Barrage and Spot-Shot as disk -based games for the 99/4A in 1983, and later Barrage, Dragonflyer, Jumpy, Qmaze and Spot-Shot game cartridges for the TI-99/4A. Mr. Dramis now lives in Raleigh, NC. (Bill Gaskill research, Bryan Roppolo interview with Jim Dramis)

DRAMITES: Alien craft that are one of eight hazards in the Parsec game, obviously named for Parsec author James E. Dramis. See also URBITES (which are just as obviously named for contributing developer Paul Urbanas.

DRAW 'N PLOT: Quality 99 Software - Released 1Q/1985 - MSRP $19.95 -- An easy-to-use graphics program, with assembly language speed, that allows the user to create and print drawings, graphs, free-hand designs and illustrations. Supports mixing graphics with text, user can set line and background colors, and it can all be saved to disk for later use. Prints in normal (screen size) or full page size. Supports TI Impact printer, Epson, Gemini, Panasonic, Star, Prowriter and Okidata (with Plug 'N Play) printers. Menu driven. Adds 14 new graphics commands to Extended BASIC, which means data and equations can be plotted on the screen or to a printer, from within an Extended BASIC program. Allows editing of Chart Maker II graphs. Created by Mark Shillingburg. Supplemental 'art' disks such as Best of Draw 'N Plot #1, #2 and #3 were also available.


BitMac (David Vaughn)
Draw 'N Plot (Quality 99 Software)
Draw A Bit
Graphx (Asgard)
Joy Paint (Great Lakes Software)
Master Painter (Amerisoft)
Norton Graphics Package
Paint 'N Print (Navarone)
Picasso Publisher (Arto Heino/Asgard)
Sketch Mate (written by Amerisoft for use with the Super Sketch graphics pad from Personal Peripherals)
TI Artist (Inscebot--Chris Faherty)

DRIVING DEMON: One of nine titles announced by Funware president Michael Brouthers at the June 1983 Consumer Electronics Show as forthcoming for the 99/4A by September 1, 1983. The nine titles included: Ambulance, Ant Colony, Astroblitz, Cave Creatures, Crisis Mountain, Driving Demon, Pipes, Saint Nick and Trashman. Only three of the titles announced actually made it into production (Ambulance, Driving Demon and St. Nick).

DROP DEAD TWICE: The subtitle of a July 1983 BYTE magazine article by Jerry Pournelle in which he figuratively scratches his head in wonder at TI's summer CES warning to cartridge software manufacturers about the legal hazards of producing modules for the 99/4A without licensing them through Texas Instruments.

DUMBUGS: The characters in Milton Bradley's I'm Hiding cartridge. See also I'M HIDING.

DUPLICATOR: программа для копирования программных дисков от компании "Quality 99 Software". Выпущена во 2 квартале 1985 г. по розничной цене $19,95.

DYTEK: название компании, предлагавшей программы на заказ для компьютеров "VIC-20" и "TI-99/4A", которая находилась по адресу P.O. Box 241 Pinellas Park, FL 33565.

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